One of the most common evolutionary transitions in angiosperms is the reproductive change from outcrossing to selfing, commonly associated with changes in floral biology and genetic diversity. Here, we aim to test whether self-compatibility leads to a reduction of floral traits and genetic diversity. For this, we experimentally estimate levels of self-compatibility, measure three floral traits and estimate four genetic diversity parameters using nine microsatellites in nine Calceolaria
species. Our analysis indicated that four of the study species were self-incompatible. In addition, we found that self-compatible species did not show a reduction in floral traits size, but rather displayed larger corolla and elaiophore areas. Our analyses of genetic diversity identified larger allele number and observed heterozygosity in selfers than in outcrossers, but did not find larger inbreeding in the self-compatible species. Even though our results contradict our expectations, in the case of Calceolaria
, their high dependence on only two genera of oil-bees puts the genus in a vulnerable reproductive position, probably facilitating the evolution of reproductive assurance mechanisms in the absence of pollinators. As a result, plants maintain their pollinator attraction traits while evolving the ability to self, possibly in a delayed way.
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