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Open AccessArticle

Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Specialized Metabolites for Predicting Lichen Fitness and Snail Foraging

1
Univ Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes)—UMR 6226, F-35000 Rennes, France
2
Univ Rennes, CNRS, ECOBIO (Ecosystèmes, biodiversité, évolution)—UMR 6553, F-35000 Rennes, France
3
INRA, UR1268 Biopolymers Interactions Assemblies, F-44316 Nantes, France
4
UMR152 PharmaDev, Université de Toulouse, IRD, UPS, F-31400 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010070
Received: 24 November 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 1 January 2020 / Published: 6 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichen Symbiosis)
Lichens are slow-growing organisms supposed to synthetize specialized metabolites to protect themselves against diverse grazers. As predicted by the optimal defense theory (ODT), lichens are expected to invest specialized metabolites in higher levels in reproductive tissues compared to thallus. We investigated whether Laser Desorption Ionization coupled to Mass Spectrometry Imaging (LDI-MSI) could be a relevant tool for chemical ecology issues such as ODT. In the present study, this method was applied to cross-sections of thalli and reproductive tissues of the lichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata. Spatial mapping revealed phenolic families of metabolites. A quantification of these metabolites was carried out in addition to spatial imaging. By this method, accumulation of specialized metabolites was observed in both reproductive parts (apothecia and soralia) of P. crocata, but their nature depended on the lichen organs: apothecia concentrated norstictic acid, tenuiorin, and pulvinic acid derivatives, whereas soralia mainly contained tenuiorin and pulvinic acid. Stictic acid, tenuiorin and calycin, tested in no-choices feeding experiments, were deterrent for N. hookeri while entire thalli were consumed by the snail. To improve better knowledge in relationships between grazed and grazing organisms, LDI-MSI appears to be a complementary tool in ecological studies View Full-Text
Keywords: Pseudocyphellaria crocata; Lobariaceae; Chemical Ecology; Optimal Defense Theory; Mass Spectrometry Imaging; Lichens; Specialized Metabolites; Notodiscus hookeri Pseudocyphellaria crocata; Lobariaceae; Chemical Ecology; Optimal Defense Theory; Mass Spectrometry Imaging; Lichens; Specialized Metabolites; Notodiscus hookeri
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gadea, A.; Fanuel, M.; Le Lamer, A.-C.; Boustie, J.; Rogniaux, H.; Charrier, M.; Lohézic-Le Devehat, F. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Specialized Metabolites for Predicting Lichen Fitness and Snail Foraging. Plants 2020, 9, 70.

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