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Open AccessArticle

Herbal Teas and Drinks: Folk Medicine of the Manoor Valley, Lesser Himalaya, Pakistan

1
Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300, KP, Pakistan
2
William L. Brown Center, Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
3
Department of Plant Production, College of Food and Agriculture Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Mycology and Plant Disease Survey Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza 12619, Egypt
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Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, 1 Botanical Street, Tbilisi 0105, Georgia
8
Department of Biology, University of Sao Paolo, SP 05315-970, Brazil
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Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO 63166, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(12), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120581
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 7 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants)
In spite of the remarkable achievements in the healthcare sector over recent decades, inequities in accessibility and affordability of these facilities coexist throughout Pakistan. Thus, we aimed to explore and document the cultural knowledge of herbal teas used medicinally by the local community members of Manoor Valley, Pakistan. Field investigations were undertaken during the summer season of 2015–2017, and cultural practices of medicinal plant usage for treating various ailments were gathered through interviews of the local inhabitants. Ethnomedicinal insights of the medicinal plants used in herbal teas were gained with different indexes. Our results revealed 27 plant species, comprising of herbs (70%), shrubs (26%), and trees (4%), which were used for treating 21 diseases. Plants belonged to 18 families: Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were the leading families used for treating diseases. Diarrhea and gas troubles were the most frequent diseases. Based on indexes values, Cannabis sativa was the dominant species used. The results revealed that 57% of medicinal uses are new to literature. This ethnomedicinal study is providing the first insights into the traditional medication system of Lesser Himalaya, Pakistan, through ethnomedicinal teas. View Full-Text
Keywords: medicinal plants; herbal teas; traditional knowledge; cultural medicine; Himalayas medicinal plants; herbal teas; traditional knowledge; cultural medicine; Himalayas
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, I.U.; Afzal, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Hart, R.; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Hashem, A.; Alsayed, M.F.; Ijaz, F.; Ali, N.; Shah, M.; Bussmann, R.W.; Calixto, E.S. Herbal Teas and Drinks: Folk Medicine of the Manoor Valley, Lesser Himalaya, Pakistan. Plants 2019, 8, 581.

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