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Guard Cell Membrane Anion Transport Systems and Their Regulatory Components: An Elaborate Mechanism Controlling Stress-Induced Stomatal Closure

Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aobayama 6-6-07, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
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Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt and Water Stress Tolerance in Plants)
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Abstract

When plants are exposed to drastic environmental changes such as drought, salt or bacterial invasion, rapid stomatal movement confers tolerance to these stresses. This process involves a variety of guard cell expressed ion channels and their complex regulation network. Inward K+ channels mainly function in stomatal opening. On the other hand, guard cell anion channels play a crucial role in the closing of stomata, which is vital in terms of preventing water loss and bacterial entrance. Massive progress has been made on the research of these anion channels in the last decade. In this review, we focus on the function and regulation of Arabidopsis guard cell anion channels. Starting from SLAC1, a main contributor of stomatal closure, members of SLAHs (SLAC1 homologues), AtNRTs (Nitrate transporters), AtALMTs (Aluminum-activated malate transporters), ABC transporters, AtCLCs (Chloride channels), DTXs (Detoxification efflux carriers), SULTRs (Sulfate transporters), and their regulator components are reviewed. These membrane transport systems are the keys to maintaining cellular ion homeostasis against fluctuating external circumstances. View Full-Text
Keywords: guard cell; drought stress; salt stress; bacterial immunity; anion channel; protein kinases; calcium signaling; abscisic acid signaling; ion homeostasis guard cell; drought stress; salt stress; bacterial immunity; anion channel; protein kinases; calcium signaling; abscisic acid signaling; ion homeostasis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Saito, S.; Uozumi, N. Guard Cell Membrane Anion Transport Systems and Their Regulatory Components: An Elaborate Mechanism Controlling Stress-Induced Stomatal Closure. Plants 2019, 8, 9.

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