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Article

DeepLRR: An Online Webserver for Leucine-Rich-Repeat Containing Protein Characterization Based on Deep Learning

by 1,*, 2, 2 and 1,*
1
Key Lab of Horticultural Plant Biology (MOE), College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Nussbaumer
Plants 2022, 11(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010136
Received: 29 November 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 1 January 2022 / Published: 4 January 2022
Members of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily play critical roles in multiple biological processes. As the LRR unit sequence is highly variable, accurately predicting the number and location of LRR units in proteins is a highly challenging task in the field of bioinformatics. Existing methods still need to be improved, especially when it comes to similarity-based methods. We introduce our DeepLRR method based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) model and LRR features to predict the number and location of LRR units in proteins. We compared DeepLRR with six existing methods using a dataset containing 572 LRR proteins and it outperformed all of them when it comes to overall F1 score. In addition, DeepLRR has integrated identifying plant disease-resistance proteins (NLR, LRR-RLK, LRR-RLP) and non-canonical domains. With DeepLRR, 223, 191 and 183 LRR-RLK genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genomes were re-annotated, respectively. Chromosome mapping and gene cluster analysis revealed that 24.2% (54/223), 29.8% (57/191) and 16.9% (31/183) of LRR-RLK genes formed gene cluster structures in Arabidopsis, rice and tomato, respectively. Finally, we explored the evolutionary relationship and domain composition of LRR-RLK genes in each plant and distributions of known receptor and co-receptor pairs. This provides a new perspective for the identification of potential receptors and co-receptors. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep learning; LRR domain; plant disease-resistance genes deep learning; LRR domain; plant disease-resistance genes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Ren, Z.; Yan, L.; Li, F. DeepLRR: An Online Webserver for Leucine-Rich-Repeat Containing Protein Characterization Based on Deep Learning. Plants 2022, 11, 136. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010136

AMA Style

Liu Z, Ren Z, Yan L, Li F. DeepLRR: An Online Webserver for Leucine-Rich-Repeat Containing Protein Characterization Based on Deep Learning. Plants. 2022; 11(1):136. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010136

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Zhenya, Zirui Ren, Lunyi Yan, and Feng Li. 2022. "DeepLRR: An Online Webserver for Leucine-Rich-Repeat Containing Protein Characterization Based on Deep Learning" Plants 11, no. 1: 136. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010136

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