Next Article in Journal
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) as a Potential Functional Food Source of Mucilage and Bioactive Compounds with Technological Applications and Health Benefits
Next Article in Special Issue
Reproductive Biology and Pollination Ecology of Berberis lycium Royle: A Highly Valued Shrub of Immense Medicinal Significance
Previous Article in Journal
Phenotypic Characterization and RT-qPCR Analysis of Flower Development in F1 Transgenics of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum
Previous Article in Special Issue
Isolation and Characterization of APETALA3 Orthologs and Promoters from the Distylous Fagopyrum esculentum
 
 
Article

Sepal Identity of the Pappus and Floral Organ Development in the Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Asteraceae)

1
Evolutionary Ecology, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwinweg 2, 2333 CR Leiden, The Netherlands
2
Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research (IWWR), Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3
Evolutionary Genetics, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES), University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Agnes Farkas
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081682
Received: 9 July 2021 / Revised: 8 August 2021 / Accepted: 10 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floral Biology)
The dry one-seeded fruits (cypselae) of the Asteraceae are often crowned with a pappus, an appendage of hairs or scales that assists in dispersal. It is generally assumed, but little investigated, that the pappus represents the outer floral whorl where the sepals are usually located. We analysed pappus–sepal homology in dandelions using micromorphological and floral gene expression analyses. We show that the pappus initiates from a ring primordium at the base of the corolla, heterochronic to the petals. Pappus parts form from this ring, with those in the alternipetalaous position usually being ahead in growth, referring to sepal identity. Tof-APETALLA1 expression increased during floret development and was highest in mature pappus. Tof-PISTILLATA expression was high and confined to the floral tissues containing the petals and stamens, consistent with expectations for sepals. Apart from the pappus, the dispersal structure of dandelion consists of the upper part of the fruit, the beak, which originates from the inner floral whorl. Thus, our results support the homology of the pappus with the sepals, but show that it is highly derived. Together with our floral stage definitions and verified qPCR reference genes, they provide a basis for evolution and development studies in dandelions and possibly other Asteraceae. View Full-Text
Keywords: APETALA1-like; Asteraceae; dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Tof); floral development; inferior ovary; pappus; qPCR; sepals APETALA1-like; Asteraceae; dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Tof); floral development; inferior ovary; pappus; qPCR; sepals
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vijverberg, K.; Welten, M.; Kraaij, M.; van Heuven, B.J.; Smets, E.; Gravendeel, B. Sepal Identity of the Pappus and Floral Organ Development in the Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Asteraceae). Plants 2021, 10, 1682. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081682

AMA Style

Vijverberg K, Welten M, Kraaij M, van Heuven BJ, Smets E, Gravendeel B. Sepal Identity of the Pappus and Floral Organ Development in the Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Asteraceae). Plants. 2021; 10(8):1682. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081682

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vijverberg, Kitty, Monique Welten, Marjan Kraaij, Bertie Joan van Heuven, Erik Smets, and Barbara Gravendeel. 2021. "Sepal Identity of the Pappus and Floral Organ Development in the Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Asteraceae)" Plants 10, no. 8: 1682. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081682

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop