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Article

Environmental Heterogeneity Leads to Spatial Differences in Genetic Diversity and Demographic Structure of Acer caudatifolium

Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116059, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Igor Bartish
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081646
Received: 22 June 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 9 August 2021 / Published: 10 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Evolution and Population Ecology)
Under climate fluctuation, species dispersal may be disturbed by terrain and local climate, resulting in uneven spatial-genetic structure. In addition, organisms at different latitudes may be differentially susceptible to climate change. Here, we tracked the seed dispersal of Acer caudatifolium using chloroplast DNA to explore the relationships of terrain and local climate heterogeneity with range shifts and demography in Taiwan. Our results showed that the extant populations have shifted upward and northward to the mountains since the Last Glacial Maximum. The distributional upshift of A. caudatifolium is in contrast to the downward expansion of its closest relative in Taiwan, A. morrisonense. The northern populations of A. caudatifolium have acquired multiple-source chlorotypes and harbor high genetic diversity. However, effective gene flow between the north and south is interrupted by topography, geographic distance, north-south differences in October rainfall, and other climate heterogeneities, blocking southward genetic rescue. In addition, winter monsoon-driven rainfall may cause regional differences in the phenological schedule, resulting in adaptive effects on the timing of range shift and the genetic draft of chlorotype distribution. Terrain, distance, and local climate also differentiate the northernmost populations from the others, supporting the previous taxonomic treatment of Acer kawakamii var. taitonmontanum as an independent variety. View Full-Text
Keywords: upslope shift; ecological niche modeling; genetic draft; spatial-genetic structure; paleodistribution; historical demography upslope shift; ecological niche modeling; genetic draft; spatial-genetic structure; paleodistribution; historical demography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Luo, M.-X.; Lu, H.-P.; Chai, M.-W.; Chang, J.-T.; Liao, P.-C. Environmental Heterogeneity Leads to Spatial Differences in Genetic Diversity and Demographic Structure of Acer caudatifolium. Plants 2021, 10, 1646. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081646

AMA Style

Luo M-X, Lu H-P, Chai M-W, Chang J-T, Liao P-C. Environmental Heterogeneity Leads to Spatial Differences in Genetic Diversity and Demographic Structure of Acer caudatifolium. Plants. 2021; 10(8):1646. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081646

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luo, Min-Xin, Hsin-Pei Lu, Min-Wei Chai, Jui-Tse Chang, and Pei-Chun Liao. 2021. "Environmental Heterogeneity Leads to Spatial Differences in Genetic Diversity and Demographic Structure of Acer caudatifolium" Plants 10, no. 8: 1646. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081646

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