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Article

The Doctrine of Signatures in Israel—Revision and Spatiotemporal Patterns

1
Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
2
Independent Resercher, Mghar 20128, Israel
3
Department of Botany, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martina Grdiša
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071346
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 17 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)
The present survey includes forty-three plant species with present-day medicinal applications that can be related to the Doctrine of Signatures (DoS). The main uses are for jaundice (33.3%), kidney stones (20%), and as an aphrodisiac (8%). Ten Doctrine of Signature uses (22.2%) are endemic (to Israel and Jordan); while none of these plant species are endemic to the region at all, their DoS uses are endemic. Summing up of all these data reveals that 73.2% of all uses found in present-day Israel could be considered as related to Muslim traditional medicine. About one quarter (24.4%) of the DoS uses are also common to Europe, and some (8.8%) to India. The two adventive species with DoS uses serve as evidence that the DoS practice is not necessarily based solely on its historical background but is still evolving locally in accordance with changes in the local flora. The current broad geographic distribution of many of the doctrine’s uses may serve as indirect evidence of its current prevalence, and not just as a vestigial presentation of ancient beliefs. View Full-Text
Keywords: medicinal plants; doctrine of similitude; Middle East; botany; history of plant uses; ethnobotany; medical anthropology medicinal plants; doctrine of similitude; Middle East; botany; history of plant uses; ethnobotany; medical anthropology
MDPI and ACS Style

Dafni, A.; Aqil Khatib, S.; Benítez, G. The Doctrine of Signatures in Israel—Revision and Spatiotemporal Patterns. Plants 2021, 10, 1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071346

AMA Style

Dafni A, Aqil Khatib S, Benítez G. The Doctrine of Signatures in Israel—Revision and Spatiotemporal Patterns. Plants. 2021; 10(7):1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071346

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dafni, Amots, Saleh Aqil Khatib, and Guillermo Benítez. 2021. "The Doctrine of Signatures in Israel—Revision and Spatiotemporal Patterns" Plants 10, no. 7: 1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071346

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