Buckwheat is a nutritionally valuable crop, an alternative to common cereals also usable in gluten-free diets. The selection of buckwheat genotypes suitable for further breeding requires the characterization and evaluation of genetic resources. The main objective of this work was to evaluate selected phenotypic and morphological traits using international buckwheat descriptors, including total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, on a unique set of 136 common buckwheat accessions grown in 2019–2020 under Czech Republic conditions. In addition, UHPLC-ESI- MS/MS was used to analyze a wide spectrum of 20 phenolic compounds in buckwheat seeds, including four flavanols, three phenolic acids, seven flavonols, four flavones, and two flavanones. Significant differences among years and genotypes were observed for morphological traits (plant height and 1000-seed weight) and antioxidant activity, as well as levels of observed chemical compounds. Antioxidant activity, crude protein content, plant height and rutin content were characterized by higher mean values in 2020 than in 2019 and vice versa for total polyphenol content and 1000-seed weight. Crude protein content was the most stable across years, while total polyphenol content and rutin content varied greatly from year to year. The most abundant phenolic compounds were rutin, hyperoside, epicatechin, catechin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin and isoorientin. Protein content was negatively correlated with plant height, catechin and epicatechin content. On the other hand, AA and TPC were positively correlated with rutin, hyperoside and chlorogenic acid. Five accessions showed high stability of the evaluated traits under changing conditions within both years of observation. These materials can be used in breeding programmes aimed at improving buckwheat genotypes with emphasis on quality traits.
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