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Article

Global Distribution of the Reniform Nematode Genus Rotylenchulus with the Synonymy of Rotylenchulus macrosoma with Rotylenchulus borealis

1
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Avda, Menéndez Pidal s/n, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
2
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, Department of Ecological Modelling, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
3
Nematology and Chemistry Units, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani Center, Department of Entomology, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
4
Nematology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
National Plant Protection Organization, Wageningen Nematode Collection, P.O. Box 9102, 6700 HC Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
Reniform nematodes of the genus Rotylenchulus are semi-endoparasites of numerous herbaceous and woody plant roots that occur largely in regions with temperate, subtropical, and tropical climates. In this study, we compared 12 populations of Rotylenchulusborealis and 16 populations of Rotylenchulusmacrosoma, including paratypes deposited in nematode collections, confirming that morphological characters between both nematode species do not support their separation. In addition, analysis of molecular markers using nuclear ribosomal DNA (28S, ITS1) and mitochondrial DNA (coxI) genes, as well as phylogenetic approaches, confirmed the synonymy of R. macrosoma with R. borealis. This study also demonstrated that R. borealis (= macrosoma) from Israel has two distinct rRNA gene types in the genome, specifically the two types of D2-D3 (A and B). We provide a global geographical distribution of the genus Rotylenchulus. The two major pathogenic species (Rotylenchulusreniformis and Rotylenchulusparvus) showed their close relationship with warmer areas with high annual mean temperature, maximum temperature of the warmest month, and minimum temperature of the coldest month. The present study confirms the extraordinary morphological and molecular diversity of R. borealis in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East and comprises a paradigmatic example of remarkable flexibility of ecological requirements within reniform nematodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bayesian inference; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1; distribution; D2-D3 expansion domains of 28S rRNA gene; ITS1; phylogeny Bayesian inference; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1; distribution; D2-D3 expansion domains of 28S rRNA gene; ITS1; phylogeny
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palomares-Rius, J.E.; Clavero-Camacho, I.; Archidona-Yuste, A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C.; León-Ropero, G.; Braun Miyara, S.; Karssen, G.; Castillo, P. Global Distribution of the Reniform Nematode Genus Rotylenchulus with the Synonymy of Rotylenchulus macrosoma with Rotylenchulus borealis. Plants 2021, 10, 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010007

AMA Style

Palomares-Rius JE, Clavero-Camacho I, Archidona-Yuste A, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, León-Ropero G, Braun Miyara S, Karssen G, Castillo P. Global Distribution of the Reniform Nematode Genus Rotylenchulus with the Synonymy of Rotylenchulus macrosoma with Rotylenchulus borealis. Plants. 2021; 10(1):7. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palomares-Rius, Juan E., Ilenia Clavero-Camacho, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Guillermo León-Ropero, Sigal Braun Miyara, Gerrit Karssen, and Pablo Castillo. 2021. "Global Distribution of the Reniform Nematode Genus Rotylenchulus with the Synonymy of Rotylenchulus macrosoma with Rotylenchulus borealis" Plants 10, no. 1: 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010007

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