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Review

Developmental Aspects of SARS-CoV-2, Potential Role of Exosomes and Their Impact on the Human Transcriptome

by 1,2,*,†, 3,† and 4,*,†
1
Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
2
Department of Pathology, Molecular and Cell-Based Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
3
Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
4
Active Motif, Incorporated, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Simon J. Conway
J. Dev. Biol. 2021, 9(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb9040054
Received: 19 October 2021 / Revised: 12 November 2021 / Accepted: 23 November 2021 / Published: 29 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases and Developmental Biology: COVID-19 and Beyond)
With over 4.8 million deaths within 2 years, time is of the essence in combating COVID-19. The infection now shows devastating impacts on the younger population, who were not previously predicted to be vulnerable, such as in the older population. COVID-19-related complications have been reported in neonates whose mothers were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy, and in children who get infected. Hence, a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of COVID-19 during various developmental stages and placental transmission is essential. Although a connection has not yet been established between exosomal trafficking and the placental transmission of COVID-19, reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 components may be trafficked between cells through exosomes. As the infection spreads, the transcriptome of cells is drastically perturbed, e.g., through the severe upregulation of several immune-related genes. Consequently, a major outcome of COVID-19 is an elevated immune response and the detection of viral RNA transcripts in host tissue. In this direction, this review focuses on SARS-CoV-2 virology, its in utero transmission from infected pregnant mothers to fetuses, SARS-CoV-2 and exosomal cellular trafficking, transcriptomic impacts, and RNA-mediated therapeutics against COVID-19. Future research will establish stronger connections between the above processes to develop diagnostic and therapeutic solutions towards COVID-19 and similar viral outbreaks. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; placental transmission; development; exosomes; transcriptome; sub-genomic RNA; RNA-sequencing; mRNA vaccine SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; placental transmission; development; exosomes; transcriptome; sub-genomic RNA; RNA-sequencing; mRNA vaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dogra, N.; Ledesma-Feliciano, C.; Sen, R. Developmental Aspects of SARS-CoV-2, Potential Role of Exosomes and Their Impact on the Human Transcriptome. J. Dev. Biol. 2021, 9, 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb9040054

AMA Style

Dogra N, Ledesma-Feliciano C, Sen R. Developmental Aspects of SARS-CoV-2, Potential Role of Exosomes and Their Impact on the Human Transcriptome. Journal of Developmental Biology. 2021; 9(4):54. https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb9040054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dogra, Navneet, Carmen Ledesma-Feliciano, and Rwik Sen. 2021. "Developmental Aspects of SARS-CoV-2, Potential Role of Exosomes and Their Impact on the Human Transcriptome" Journal of Developmental Biology 9, no. 4: 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb9040054

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