With over 4.8 million deaths within 2 years, time is of the essence in combating COVID-19. The infection now shows devastating impacts on the younger population, who were not previously predicted to be vulnerable, such as in the older population. COVID-19-related complications have been reported in neonates whose mothers were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy, and in children who get infected. Hence, a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of COVID-19 during various developmental stages and placental transmission is essential. Although a connection has not yet been established between exosomal trafficking and the placental transmission of COVID-19, reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 components may be trafficked between cells through exosomes. As the infection spreads, the transcriptome of cells is drastically perturbed, e.g., through the severe upregulation of several immune-related genes. Consequently, a major outcome of COVID-19 is an elevated immune response and the detection of viral RNA transcripts in host tissue. In this direction, this review focuses on SARS-CoV-2 virology, its in utero transmission from infected pregnant mothers to fetuses, SARS-CoV-2 and exosomal cellular trafficking, transcriptomic impacts, and RNA-mediated therapeutics against COVID-19. Future research will establish stronger connections between the above processes to develop diagnostic and therapeutic solutions towards COVID-19 and similar viral outbreaks.
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