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J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6040027

Kat2a and Kat2b Acetyltransferase Activity Regulates Craniofacial Cartilage and Bone Differentiation in Zebrafish and Mice

1
Department of Craniofacial Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
2
Cell Biology, Stem Cells, and Development Graduate Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
3
Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
4
Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Development)
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Abstract

Cranial neural crest cells undergo cellular growth, patterning, and differentiation within the branchial arches to form cartilage and bone, resulting in a precise pattern of skeletal elements forming the craniofacial skeleton. However, it is unclear how cranial neural crest cells are regulated to give rise to the different shapes and sizes of the bone and cartilage. Epigenetic regulators are good candidates to be involved in this regulation, since they can exert both broad as well as precise control on pattern formation. Here, we investigated the role of the histone acetyltransferases Kat2a and Kat2b in craniofacial development using TALEN/CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis in zebrafish and the Kat2ahat/hat (also called Gcn5) allele in mice. kat2a and kat2b are broadly expressed during embryogenesis within the central nervous system and craniofacial region. Single and double kat2a and kat2b zebrafish mutants have an overall shortening and hypoplastic nature of the cartilage elements and disruption of the posterior ceratobranchial cartilages, likely due to smaller domains of expression of both cartilage- and bone-specific markers, including sox9a and col2a1, and runx2a and runx2b, respectively. Similarly, in mice we observe defects in the craniofacial skeleton, including hypoplastic bone and cartilage and altered expression of Runx2 and cartilage markers (Sox9, Col2a1). In addition, we determined that following the loss of Kat2a activity, overall histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation, the main epigenetic target of Kat2a/Kat2b, was decreased. These results suggest that Kat2a and Kat2b are required for growth and differentiation of craniofacial cartilage and bone in both zebrafish and mice by regulating H3K9 acetylation. View Full-Text
Keywords: craniofacial skeleton; cranial neural crest cells; histone H3K9 acetylation; GCN5; PCAF craniofacial skeleton; cranial neural crest cells; histone H3K9 acetylation; GCN5; PCAF
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Sen, R.; Pezoa, S.A.; Carpio Shull, L.; Hernandez-Lagunas, L.; Niswander, L.A.; Artinger, K.B. Kat2a and Kat2b Acetyltransferase Activity Regulates Craniofacial Cartilage and Bone Differentiation in Zebrafish and Mice. J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6, 27.

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