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Yeast Gup1(2) Proteins Are Homologues of the Hedgehog Morphogens Acyltransferases HHAT(L): Facts and Implications

CBMA—Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-054 Braga, Portugal
School of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Henk Roelink and Simon J. Conway
J. Dev. Biol. 2016, 4(4), 33;
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 5 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Hedgehog Signaling in Embryogenesis)
PDF [4698 KB, uploaded 5 November 2016]


In multiple tissues, the Hedgehog secreted morphogen activates in the receiving cells a pathway involved in cell fate, proliferation and differentiation in the receiving cells. This pathway is particularly important during embryogenesis. The protein HHAT (Hedgehog O-acyltransferase) modifies Hh morphogens prior to their secretion, while HHATL (Hh O-acyltransferase-like) negatively regulates the pathway. HHAT and HHATL are homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gup2 and Gup1, respectively. In yeast, Gup1 is associated with a high number and diversity of biological functions, namely polarity establishment, secretory/endocytic pathway functionality, vacuole morphology and wall and membrane composition, structure and maintenance. Phenotypes underlying death, morphogenesis and differentiation are also included. Paracrine signalling, like the one promoted by the Hh pathway, has not been shown to occur in microbial communities, despite the fact that large aggregates of cells like biofilms or colonies behave as proto-tissues. Instead, these have been suggested to sense the population density through the secretion of quorum-sensing chemicals. This review focuses on Gup1/HHATL and Gup2/HHAT proteins. We review the functions and physiology associated with these proteins in yeasts and higher eukaryotes. We suggest standardisation of the presently chaotic Gup-related nomenclature, which includes KIAA117, c3orf3, RASP, Skinny, Sightless and Central Missing, in order to avoid the disclosure of otherwise unnoticed information. View Full-Text
Keywords: yeast; GUP; HHAT; morphogenesis; Hedgehog yeast; GUP; HHAT; morphogenesis; Hedgehog

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lucas, C.; Ferreira, C.; Cazzanelli, G.; Franco-Duarte, R.; Tulha, J. Yeast Gup1(2) Proteins Are Homologues of the Hedgehog Morphogens Acyltransferases HHAT(L): Facts and Implications. J. Dev. Biol. 2016, 4, 33.

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