Reliable RealTime Ball Tracking for Robot Table Tennis
Abstract
:1. Introduction
1.1. Contributions
1.2. Related Work
2. Reliable RealTime Ball Tracking
2.1. Finding the Position of the Ball in an Image
Algorithm 1 Finding the set of pixels of an object. 
Input: A probability image $\mathit{B}$, and a high and low thresholds ${T}_{h}$ and ${T}_{l}$. Output: A set of object pixels O

2.2. Robust Estimation of the Ball Position
Algorithm 2 Remove outliers by finding the largest consistent subset of 2D observations for stereo vision. 
Input: A set of 2D observations and camera matrix pairs $S=\{\{{x}_{1},P1\},\cdots ,\{{x}_{k},{P}_{k}\}\}$, and pixel error threshold $\u03f5$. Output: A subset $\widehat{S}\subset S$ of maximal size without outliers.

3. Experiments and Results
3.1. Evaluation on a Simulation Environment
3.2. Evaluation on the Real Robot Platform
4. Conclusions and Discussion
Author Contributions
Funding
Conflicts of Interest
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c  Probability of Outliers ${\mathit{p}}_{\mathit{o}}$  

1%  5%  10%  25%  50%  
4  E  0.71 cm  0.85 cm  0.84 cm  0.79 cm  4.67 cm 
F  0.1%  0.5%  2.0%  9.7%  37.7%  
8  E  0.52 cm  0.53 cm  0.59 cm  0.94 cm  6.84 cm 
F  0.0%  0.0%  0.0%  0.1%  4.5%  
15  E  0.35 cm  0.36 cm  0.37 cm  0.41 cm  4.72 cm 
F  0.0%  0.0%  0.0%  0.0%  0.02%  
30  E  0.24 cm  0.25 cm  0.25 cm  0.28 cm  0.35 cm 
F  0.0%  0.0%  0.0%  0.0%  0.0% 
Cameras  4  8  15  30  50 
Run time (ms)  0.001  0.012  0.015  3.02  11.46 
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GomezGonzalez, S.; Nemmour, Y.; Schölkopf, B.; Peters, J. Reliable RealTime Ball Tracking for Robot Table Tennis. Robotics 2019, 8, 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics8040090
GomezGonzalez S, Nemmour Y, Schölkopf B, Peters J. Reliable RealTime Ball Tracking for Robot Table Tennis. Robotics. 2019; 8(4):90. https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics8040090
Chicago/Turabian StyleGomezGonzalez, Sebastian, Yassine Nemmour, Bernhard Schölkopf, and Jan Peters. 2019. "Reliable RealTime Ball Tracking for Robot Table Tennis" Robotics 8, no. 4: 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics8040090