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Wearable Sensors for Human–Robot Walking Together

The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 56025, Pontedera (PI), Italy
Co-Robotics srl, 56033 Capannoli (PI), Italy
Sheffield Robotics, Centre for Automation and Robotics Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Robotics 2019, 8(2), 38;
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Mechatronics Systems)
PDF [2818 KB, uploaded 15 May 2019]


Thanks to recent technological improvements that enable novel applications beyond the industrial context, there is growing interest in the use of robots in everyday life situations. To improve the acceptability of personal service robots, they should seamlessly interact with the users, understand their social signals and cues and respond appropriately. In this context, a few proposals were presented to make robots and humans navigate together naturally without explicit user control, but no final solution has been achieved yet. To make an advance toward this end, this paper proposes the use of wearable Inertial Measurement Units to improve the interaction between human and robot while walking together without physical links and with no restriction on the relative position between the human and the robot. We built a prototype system, experimented with 19 human participants in two different tasks, to provide real-time evaluation of gait parameters for a mobile robot moving together with a human, and studied the feasibility and the perceived usability by the participants. The results show the feasibility of the system, which obtained positive feedback from the users, giving valuable information for the development of a natural interaction system where the robot perceives human movements by means of wearable sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: human–robot interaction; inertial wearable sensors; motion analysis; social robots human–robot interaction; inertial wearable sensors; motion analysis; social robots

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Moschetti, A.; Cavallo, F.; Esposito, D.; Penders, J.; Di Nuovo, A. Wearable Sensors for Human–Robot Walking Together. Robotics 2019, 8, 38.

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