Next Article in Journal
Performance-Based Design of the CRS-RRC Schoenflies-Motion Generator
Next Article in Special Issue
Model-Free Gradient-Based Adaptive Learning Controller for an Unmanned Flexible Wing Aircraft
Previous Article in Journal
Analytical Method for Determination of Internal Forces of Mechanisms and Manipulators
Previous Article in Special Issue
Kinematics of the 3(RPSP)-S Fully Spherical Parallel Manipulator by Means of Screw Theory
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Robotics 2018, 7(3), 54;

The Development of Highly Flexible Stretch Sensors for a Robotic Hand

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
Department of Materials Engineering, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Caen, 14000 Caen, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3702 KB, uploaded 11 September 2018]   |  


Demand for highly compliant mechanical sensors for use in the fields of robotics and wearable electronics has been constantly rising in recent times. Carbon based materials, and especially, carbon nanotubes, have been widely studied as a candidate piezoresistive sensing medium in these devices due to their favorable structural morphology. In this paper three different carbon based materials, namely carbon black, graphene nano-platelets, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, were utilized as large stretch sensors capable of measuring stretches over 250%. These stretch sensors can be used in robotic hands/arms to determine the angular position of joints. Analysis was also carried out to understand the effect of the morphologies of the carbon particles on the electromechanical response of the sensors. Sensors with gauge factors ranging from one to 1.75 for strain up to 200% were obtained. Among these sensors, the stretch sensors with carbon black/silicone composite were found to have the highest gauge factor while demonstrating acceptable hysteresis in most robotic hand applications. The highly flexible stretch sensors demonstrated in this work show high levels of compliance and conformance making them ideal candidates as sensors for soft robotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: flexible sensor; large stretch sensor; carbon nanoparticle; piezoresistive; robotic exoskeleton flexible sensor; large stretch sensor; carbon nanoparticle; piezoresistive; robotic exoskeleton

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Devaraj, H.; Giffney, T.; Petit, A.; Assadian, M.; Aw, K. The Development of Highly Flexible Stretch Sensors for a Robotic Hand. Robotics 2018, 7, 54.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Robotics EISSN 2218-6581 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top