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Wood-Based Cellulose Nanofibrils: Haemocompatibility and Impact on the Development and Behaviour of Drosophila melanogaster

Department of Wood Processing Technology, Mendel University in Brno, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Production Management and Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Neural Developmental Biology Lab, Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 76908, India
Biotechnology Department, Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700107, West Bengal, India
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India
Department of Pharmaceutics, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Govt. of NCT of Delhi 110017, New Delhi, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(8), 363;
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
Wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) offer an excellent scaffold for drug-delivery formulation development. However, toxicity and haemocompatibility of the drug carrier is always an important issue. In this study, toxicity-related issues of CNF were addressed. Different doses of CNF were orally administered to Drosophila and different tests like the developmental cycle, trypan blue exclusion assay, larva crawling assay, thermal sensitivity assay, cold sensitivity assay, larval light preference test, climbing behaviour, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay, adult phenotype, and adult weight were conducted to observe the impact on its development and behaviour. A haemocompatibility assay was done on the blood taken from healthy Wistar rats. In Drosophila, the abnormalities in larval development and behaviour were observed in the behavioural assays. However, the cytotoxic effect could not be confirmed by the gut staining and level of reactive oxygen species. The larvae developed into an adult without any abnormality in the phenotype. The CNF did cause loss of weight in the adult flies and did not cause much toxicity within the body since there was no phenotypic defect. Hemolysis data also suggested that CNF was safe at lower doses, as the data was well within acceptable limits. All these results suggest that cellulose nanofibres have no significant cytotoxic effects on Drosophila. However, the developmental and behavioural abnormalities suggest that CNF may act as a behavioural teratogen. View Full-Text
Keywords: CNF toxicity; Drosophila melanogaster; haemocompatibility; wood-based CNF CNF toxicity; Drosophila melanogaster; haemocompatibility; wood-based CNF
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Mishra, P.K.; Ekielski, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Sahu, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Mishra, M.; Talegaonkar, S.; Siddiqui, L.; Mishra, H. Wood-Based Cellulose Nanofibrils: Haemocompatibility and Impact on the Development and Behaviour of Drosophila melanogaster. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 363.

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