Even though Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is of significant interest to the scientific community, its pathogenesis is very complicated and not well-understood. A great deal of progress has been made in AD research recently and with the advent of these new insights more therapeutic benefits may be identified that could help patients around the world. Much of the research in AD thus far has been very neuron-oriented; however, recent studies suggest that glial cells, i.e., microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (NG2 glia), are linked to the pathogenesis of AD and may offer several potential therapeutic targets against AD. In addition to a number of other functions, glial cells are responsible for maintaining homeostasis (i.e., concentration of ions, neurotransmitters, etc.) within the central nervous system (CNS) and are crucial to the structural integrity of neurons. This review explores the: (i) role of glial cells in AD pathogenesis; (ii) complex functionalities of the components involved; and (iii) potential therapeutic targets that could eventually lead to a better quality of life for AD patients.
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