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The Physical Properties of the Groups of Galaxies
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Review

Simulating Groups and the IntraGroup Medium: The Surprisingly Complex and Rich Middle Ground between Clusters and Galaxies

1
CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
2
Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada
4
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
5
Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
6
Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L53RF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lorenzo Lovisari and Stefano Ettori
Universe 2021, 7(7), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7070209
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 29 May 2021 / Accepted: 2 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Physical Properties of the Groups of Galaxies)
Galaxy groups are more than an intermediate scale between clusters and halos hosting individual galaxies, they are crucial laboratories capable of testing a range of astrophysics from how galaxies form and evolve to large scale structure (LSS) statistics for cosmology. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of groups on various scales offer an unparalleled testing ground for astrophysical theories. Widely used cosmological simulations with ∼(100 Mpc)3 volumes contain statistical samples of groups that provide important tests of galaxy evolution influenced by environmental processes. Larger volumes capable of reproducing LSS while following the redistribution of baryons by cooling and feedback are the essential tools necessary to constrain cosmological parameters. Higher resolution simulations can currently model satellite interactions, the processing of cool (T1045 K) multi-phase gas, and non-thermal physics including turbulence, magnetic fields and cosmic ray transport. We review simulation results regarding the gas and stellar contents of groups, cooling flows and the relation to the central galaxy, the formation and processing of multi-phase gas, satellite interactions with the intragroup medium, and the impact of groups for cosmological parameter estimation. Cosmological simulations provide evolutionarily consistent predictions of these observationally difficult-to-define objects, and have untapped potential to accurately model their gaseous, stellar and dark matter distributions. View Full-Text
Keywords: black holes; galaxy groups; galaxy surveys; intragroup medium/plasma; hydrodynamical and cosmological simulations; active galactic nuclei; X-ray observations; UV observations; cosmological parameters black holes; galaxy groups; galaxy surveys; intragroup medium/plasma; hydrodynamical and cosmological simulations; active galactic nuclei; X-ray observations; UV observations; cosmological parameters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oppenheimer, B.D.; Babul, A.; Bahé, Y.; Butsky, I.S.; McCarthy, I.G. Simulating Groups and the IntraGroup Medium: The Surprisingly Complex and Rich Middle Ground between Clusters and Galaxies. Universe 2021, 7, 209. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7070209

AMA Style

Oppenheimer BD, Babul A, Bahé Y, Butsky IS, McCarthy IG. Simulating Groups and the IntraGroup Medium: The Surprisingly Complex and Rich Middle Ground between Clusters and Galaxies. Universe. 2021; 7(7):209. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7070209

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oppenheimer, Benjamin D., Arif Babul, Yannick Bahé, Iryna S. Butsky, and Ian G. McCarthy. 2021. "Simulating Groups and the IntraGroup Medium: The Surprisingly Complex and Rich Middle Ground between Clusters and Galaxies" Universe 7, no. 7: 209. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7070209

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