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Open AccessReview

Properties of Fossil Groups of Galaxies

by 1,2,† and 3,4,*,†
1
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Spain
2
Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Spain
3
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova, Italy
4
INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Francesco Shankar
Universe 2021, 7(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7050132
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Physical Properties of the Groups of Galaxies)
We review the formation and evolution of fossil groups and clusters from both the theoretical and the observational points of view. In the optical band, these systems are dominated by the light of the central galaxy. They were interpreted as old systems that had enough time to merge all the M* galaxies within the central one. During the last two decades, many observational studies were performed to prove the old and relaxed state of fossil systems. The majority of these studies that spans a wide range of topics including halos global scaling relations, dynamical substructures, stellar populations, and galaxy luminosity functions seem to challenge this scenario. The general picture that can be obtained by reviewing all the observational works is that the fossil state could be transitional. Indeed, the formation of the large magnitude gap observed in fossil systems could be related to internal processes rather than an old formation.
Keywords: fossil galaxy groups; galaxy clusters; galaxy groups; X-ray and optical observations; hydrodynamical simulations fossil galaxy groups; galaxy clusters; galaxy groups; X-ray and optical observations; hydrodynamical simulations
MDPI and ACS Style

Aguerri, J.A.L.; Zarattini, S. Properties of Fossil Groups of Galaxies. Universe 2021, 7, 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7050132

AMA Style

Aguerri JAL, Zarattini S. Properties of Fossil Groups of Galaxies. Universe. 2021; 7(5):132. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7050132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aguerri, J. A.L.; Zarattini, Stefano. 2021. "Properties of Fossil Groups of Galaxies" Universe 7, no. 5: 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7050132

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