Next Article in Journal
Higher Spin Fields in Hyperspace. A Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Entropic Distance for Nonlinear Master Equation
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Parallels of Belated Recognition: Bolyai János and Károlyházy Frigyes
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Universe 2018, 4(1), 9;

Hamiltonian Dynamics of Doubly-Foliable Space-Times

Institute of Physics, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [228 KB, uploaded 23 January 2018]   |  


The 2 + 1 + 1 decomposition of space-time is useful in monitoring the temporal evolution of gravitational perturbations/waves in space-times with a spatial direction singled-out by symmetries. Such an approach based on a perpendicular double foliation has been employed in the framework of dark matter and dark energy-motivated scalar-tensor gravitational theories for the discussion of the odd sector perturbations of spherically-symmetric gravity. For the even sector, however, the perpendicularity has to be suppressed in order to allow for suitable gauge freedom, recovering the 10th metric variable. The 2 + 1 + 1 decomposition of the Einstein–Hilbert action leads to the identification of the canonical pairs, the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Hamiltonian dynamics is then derived via Poisson brackets. View Full-Text
Keywords: space-time foliation; extrinsic curvature; normal fundamental form and scalar; symmetries; geometrodynamics space-time foliation; extrinsic curvature; normal fundamental form and scalar; symmetries; geometrodynamics

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gergely, C.; Keresztes, Z.; Gergely, L.Á. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Doubly-Foliable Space-Times. Universe 2018, 4, 9.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Universe EISSN 2218-1997 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top