Anti-Proliferative and Genotoxic Activities of the Helichrysum petiolare Hilliard & B.L. Burtt
School of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Mpumalanga, Private Bag X11283, Mbombela 1200, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sci. Pharm. 2020, 88(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm88040049
Received: 10 July 2020 / Revised: 9 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 20 October 2020
Helichrysum petiolare (Asteraceae family) is part of the Helichrysum genus which comprises of an estimated 600 species. Several parts of the plant have been used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments, such as cough, infection, asthma, chest problems, diabetes and wounds. Given its various chemical constituents with anticancer properties, there has been no scientific evidence of its usage for the treatment of cancer. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and genotoxic activities of H. petiolare methanol extract. The cytotoxic effect and cell cycle analysis of mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) and human melanoma cells (MeWo) were assessed using the ImageXpress Micro XLS Widefield High-Content Analysis System. The genotoxic potential of the extract towards Vero cells was also assessed using the micronucleus assay. The extract displayed cytotoxicity towards B16F10 and MeWo skin melanoma cells, thereby showing a dose-dependent decrease in cell density. This was preceded by cell cycle arrest in B16F10 cells at the S phase and MeWo cell arrest at the early M phase with a significant increase in apoptosis in both cells. Furthermore, the extract displayed genotoxic potential at the tested concentrations (12.5–200 μg/mL). Overall, the results revealed that H. petiolare extract may have the potential to eradicate skin cancer.