Next Article in Journal
Obituary for Prof. Dr. Gottfried Heinisch
Previous Article in Journal
Cyclodextrins in Drug Delivery Systems and Their Effects on Biological Barriers
Open AccessReview

Multifaceted Protective Role of Glucosamine against Osteoarthritis: Review of Its Molecular Mechanisms

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm87040034
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 5 December 2019
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease resulting from cartilage degeneration and causing joint pain and stiffness. Glucosamine exerts chondroprotective effects and effectively reduces OA pain and stiffness. This review aims to summarise the mechanism of glucosamine in protecting joint health and preventing OA by conducting a literature search on original articles. Current evidence has revealed that glucosamine exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory factors (such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6) and enhancing the synthesis of proteoglycans that retard cartilage degradation and improve joint function. Additionally, glucosamine improves cellular redox status, reduces OA-mediated oxidative damages, scavenges free radicals, upregulates antioxidant proteins and enzyme levels, inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species, and induces autophagy to delay OA pathogenesis. In conclusion, glucosamine prevents OA and maintains joint health by reducing inflammation, improving the redox status, and inducing autophagy in joints. Further studies are warranted to determine the synergistic effect of glucosamine with other anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidative agents on joint health in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: cartilage; chondrocytes; glucosamine; inflammation; osteoarthritis cartilage; chondrocytes; glucosamine; inflammation; osteoarthritis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Saadi, H.M.; Pang, K.-L.; Ima-Nirwana, S.; Chin, K.-Y. Multifaceted Protective Role of Glucosamine against Osteoarthritis: Review of Its Molecular Mechanisms. Sci. Pharm. 2019, 87, 34.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop