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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2015). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).
Open AccessArticle
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(1), 131-140; (registering DOI)

In Vitro Study on Antihypertensive and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of a Curcumin Nanoemulsion

School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesah 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia.
National Research Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesah 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 14 February 2016
PDF [604 KB, uploaded 7 September 2016]


Atherosclerosis and hypertension can potentially progess into dangerous cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol levels while antihypertensive agents such as captopril are widely prescribed to treat high blood pressure. Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated from Curcuma domestica, has been proven effective for a broad spectrum of diseases, including hypertension and hyper-cholesterolemia. Therefore, curcumin is quite promising as an alternative therapeutic compound. Our previous studies have proven a significant increase in physical properties, bioavailability, and stability of curcumin when encapsulated in a nanoemulsion. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the nanoemulsion in enhancing curcumin activity as a antihypertensive and antihypercholesterolemic agent. The formulation and preparation method of the curcumin nanoemulsion have been developed in our previous study. Physical characterization was performed, including measurement of droplet size, polidispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and loading capacity. Antihypertensive activity of curcumin was evaluated by determining Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition in vitro. A substrate for ACE, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine was allowed to react with ACE, resulting in hippuric acid formation as the product. The degree of ACE inhibition by curcumin was represented by the amount of hippuric acid formed. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of curcumin was studied using the HMG-CoA reductase assay equipped with a 96-well UV plate. This assay was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of the decrease in absorbance which represents the oxidation of NADPH by the catalytic subunit of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) in the presence of the substrate HMG-CoA. Curcumin is known to have no significant difference in inhibiting ACE compared to Captopril, but when it was incorporated in the self-nanoemulsifying carrier, it slightly increased the inhibitory effect on ACE. In contrast, the effect of curcumin in reducing cholesterol based on the HMGR assay was more pronounced. Curcumin encapsulated in a nanoemulsion showed significant cholesterol-lowering activity compared to a standard drug, pravastatin. Therefore, we conclude that curcumin does not show ACE inhibitory effects, but has potential use as an alternative therapeutic compound to treat hyperlipidaemia. Curcumin encapsulated in a nanoemulsion increased not only the HMGR inhibition, but also ACE inhibition of curcumin. These effects are suggested to be the result of improved solubility in the nanoemulsion system.
Keywords: ACE Inhibitor; Curcumin; Self nanoemulsion; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor; UV ACE Inhibitor; Curcumin; Self nanoemulsion; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor; UV
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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RACHMAWATI, H.; SORAYA, I.S.; KURNIATI, N.F.; RAHMA, A. In Vitro Study on Antihypertensive and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of a Curcumin Nanoemulsion. Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84, 131-140.

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