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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).
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Sci. Pharm. 2011, 79(4), 921-936;

Study on Cytochrome P-450 Dependent Retinoic Acid Metabolism and its Inhibitors as Potential Agents for Cancer Therapy

University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab (Old Campus), the Mall, Lahore, Pakistan
Received: 24 June 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 12 August 2011
PDF [329 KB, uploaded 28 September 2016]


The relative lack of clinical success with conventional anticancer agents may be due in part to the traditional concept of cancer being a biological state rather than a dynamic process. Redefining cancer as a dynamic disease commencing with carcinogenesis introduces the possibility of chemoprevention. Retinoids offer the promise of a therapeutic option based on differentiation of premalignant as well as malignant cells. Research to date has concentrated on the use of exogenous retinoids in cancer. Although this research continues with new retinoid derivatives, an alternative approach to overcoming the drawbacks associated with exogenous retinoids has been to increase the levels of endogenous retinoic acid (RA) by inhibiting the cytochrome P450- mediated catabolism of RA using a novel class of agents known as retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs which increase the level of endogenous retinoic acid (RA) within the tumor cells by blocking their metabolism. This approach presents several theoretic advantages. In the present study a wide range of established P-450 inhibitors has been screened to examine their inhibitory activity on all-trans-Retinoic acid (ATRA) metabolism. Forty-one known P450 inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory activity against RA metabolism. Most of them are nitrogen-containing compounds. The results showed that among these compounds only six compounds (N-benzyl-2-phenylethanamine, itraconazole, chlorpromazine, 5-chloro-1,3-benzoxazol-2-amine, proadifen and furazolidone) showed inhibition of RA metabolism which was > 50%. Ketoconazole and liarozole were also screened as standard potent inhibitors in the same system and gave 87.5% and 89% inhibition, respectively. The results indicate that mostly azoles with substituents in positions other than the 1-position on the ring are very weak inhibitors of RA metabolism. The most effective inhibitors (ketoconazole, itraconazole, bifonazole and clotrimazole) are 1-substituted and possess relatively large aromatic groups in the molecule. 1-Substituted imidazoles bind to cytochrome P-450 with a very high affinity but substitution in the other position of the imidazole decreases the binding affinity.
Keywords: Retinoic Acid Metabolism blocking agents; RAMBAs; Cancer differentiation Retinoic Acid Metabolism blocking agents; RAMBAs; Cancer differentiation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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AHMAD, M. Study on Cytochrome P-450 Dependent Retinoic Acid Metabolism and its Inhibitors as Potential Agents for Cancer Therapy. Sci. Pharm. 2011, 79, 921-936.

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