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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).
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Sci. Pharm. 2009, 77(4), 817-826;

Conversion Between Osmolality and Osmolarity of Infusion Solutions

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2008 / Accepted: 27 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
PDF [206 KB, uploaded 21 December 2016]


In order to be applied into the body, intravenous fluids should be formulated to have an osmotic pressure similar to that of biological fluids. Physiologic acceptability of large-volume parenteral formulations in clinical practice is largely determined due to the osmotic effect of the dissolved solutes. Therefore, it is generally recommended that the labelling should list osmolarity. However, the declared osmolarity is not consistent with the principle of osmometry which measures osmolality. Then, the conversion of the measured osmolality to declared osmolarity is necessary. The conversion factor, defined as the ratio of molarity and molality of the solution, necessitates the measurement of the solution density and the expression of water content in solution. In this work, the relationship between molarity and molality of the aqueous solutions of nine parenteral solutes is studied. The equations for the interconversion between molarity and molality, employing the experimentally obtained mean molal volume of the dissolved solute, are proposed. The original equation allowing the estimation of the molal volume of the solute in aqueous solution from its true powder density is introduced and recommended for nonelectrolytes as well as the hydrates of electrolytes.
Keywords: Parenteral solutions; Osmolarity; Osmolality; Molal volume Parenteral solutions; Osmolarity; Osmolality; Molal volume
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zdenka; ZATLOUKAL, Z. Conversion Between Osmolality and Osmolarity of Infusion Solutions. Sci. Pharm. 2009, 77, 817-826.

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