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Open AccessArticle

Energy-Efficient Wireless Hopping Sensor Relocation Based on Prediction of Terrain Conditions

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea
2
Department of Liberal Arts, Seoul Theological University, Bucheon 14754, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010049
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 26 December 2019 / Published: 28 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Power/Data Transfer, Energy Harvesting System Design)
It is inevitable for data collection that IoT sensors are distributed to interested areas. However, not only the proper placement of sensors, but also the replacement of sensors that have run out of energy is very difficult. As a remedy, wireless charging systems for IoT sensors have been researched recently, but it is apparent that the availability of charging system is limited especially for IoT sensors scattered in rugged terrain. Thus, it is important that the sensor relocation models to recover sensing holes employ energy-efficient scheme. While there are various methods in the mobile model of wireless sensors, well-known wheel-based movements in rough areas are hard to achieve. Thus, research is ongoing in various areas of the hopping mobile model in which wireless sensors jump. Many past studies about hopping sensor relocation assume that all sensor nodes are aware of entire network information throughout the network. These assumptions do not fit well to the actual environment, and they are nothing but classical theoretical research. In addition, the physical environment (sand, mud, etc.) of the area in which the sensor is deployed can change from time to time. In this paper, we overcome the theoretical-based problems of the past researches and propose a new realistic hopping sensor relocation protocol considering terrain conditions. Since the status of obstacles around the sensing hole is unknown, the success rate of the hopping sensor relocation is used to predict the condition of the surrounding environment. Also, we are confident that our team is uniquely implementing OMNeT++ (Objective Modular Network Testbed in C++) simulation in the hopping sensor relocation protocol to reflect the actual communication environment. Simulations have been performed on various obstacles for performance evaluation and analysis, and we are confident that better energy efficiency with later appearance of sensing holes can be achieved compared to well-known relocation protocols. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile sensor; hopping sensor; relocation protocol; energy efficient protocol; internet of things (IoTs); wireless sensor networks (WSNs); simulation mobile sensor; hopping sensor; relocation protocol; energy efficient protocol; internet of things (IoTs); wireless sensor networks (WSNs); simulation
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Park, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, W. Energy-Efficient Wireless Hopping Sensor Relocation Based on Prediction of Terrain Conditions. Electronics 2020, 9, 49.

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