Energy expansion and security in the current world scenario focuses on increasing the energy generation capacity and if possible, adopting cleaner and greener energy in that development process. However, too often this expansion and planning alters the landscape and human influence on its surroundings through a very complex mechanism. Resource extraction and land management activity involved in energy infrastructure development and human management of such development systems have long-term and sometimes unforeseen consequences. Although alternative energy sources are being explored, energy production is still highly dependent on fossil fuel, especially in most developing countries. Further, energy production can potentially affect land productivity, land cover, human migration, and other factors involved in running an energy production system, which presents a complex integration of these factors. Thus, land use, energy choices, infrastructure development and the population for which such facilities are being developed must be cognizant of each other, and the interactions between them need to be studied and understood closely. This study strives to analyze the implications of linkages between the energy industry, urbanization, and population and especially highlights processes that can be affected by their interaction. It is found that despite advancement in scientific tools, each of the three components, i.e., population growth, urbanization, and energy production, operates in silos, especially in developing countries, and that this complex issue of nexus is not dealt with in a comprehensive way.
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