# Adapting an Agent-Based Model of Infectious Disease Spread in an Irish County to COVID-19

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. COVID-19 Pandemic

#### 1.2. COVID-19 Models

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Environment Component

#### 2.2. Society Component

#### 2.3. Transportation Component

#### 2.4. Disease Component

#### 2.5. Adapting from Measles to COVID-19

#### 2.6. Experiments

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. COVID-19 Model Results vs. Measles Model Results

#### 3.2. Modelling COVID-19 Dynamics

#### 3.3. Interventions and Their Influence on the Outbreaks

#### 3.4. COVID-19 in Leitrim: Real Interventions and Timings

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Infection curves for all model runs for a measles outbreak (${R}_{0}$ = 12) and a COVID-19 outbreak (${R}_{0}$ = 3.28).

**Figure 2.**The number of infected agents by time-step (each time-step represents two hours) in the simulation with different ${R}_{0}$ values.

**Figure 3.**Infection curves for model runs with and without infectious agents before they begin to show symptoms.

**Figure 5.**Infection curves for nine individual model runs for school closures in a measles outbreak.

**Figure 6.**Infection curves for all model runs for school closures in a COVID-19 outbreak (${R}_{0}$ = 3.28).

**Figure 7.**Infection curves for 9 individual model runs for school closures in a COVID-19 outbreak (${R}_{0}$ = 3.28).

**Table 1.**Key outbreak characteristics from the measles model and the COVID-19 model (${R}_{0}$ = 3.28).

Measles | COVID-19 | |
---|---|---|

Total Infected | 29,275 | 26,134 |

(27,120 31,430) | (23,870 28,367) | |

Maximum Infected | 1441 | 2144 |

(1333 1548) | (1956 2331) | |

Total Days | 113.12 | 114.86 |

(105.44 120.79) | (107.28 122.44) | |

Days to Max Infected | 74.18 | 57.11 |

(67.14 81.21) | (52.13 62.09) |

${\mathit{R}}_{0}$ | 2.00 | 3.28 | 6.49 |
---|---|---|---|

Total Infected | 25,671 | 26,134 | 28,058 |

(22,820 28,522) | (23,870 28,367) | (25,979 30,137) | |

Max Infected | 2240 | 2144 | 2766 |

(1993 2489) | (1956 2331) | (2558 2973) | |

Total Days | 114.49 | 114.86 | 105.22 |

(106.09 112.89) | (107.28 122.44) | (98.93 111.52) | |

Days to Max | 59.06 | 57.11 | 43.88 |

(53.46 64.66) | (52.13 62.09) | (40.30 47.46) |

**Table 3.**Key characteristics from the COVID-19 model with an ${R}_{0}$ of 3.28 with and without agents being infectious before symptoms begin.

Infectious before Symptoms | Yes | No |
---|---|---|

Total Infected | 27,927 | 26,134 |

(25,741 30,112) | (23,870 28,367) | |

Max Infected | 2536 | 2144 |

(2332 2740) | (1956 2331) | |

Total Days | 112.04 | 114.86 |

(105.32 118.76) | (107.28 122.44) | |

Days to Max | 48.08 | 57.11 |

(43.81 52.36) | (52.13 62.09) |

No Interventions | Vaccination | School Closures | |
---|---|---|---|

Total Infected | 29,275 | 602 | 868 |

(27,129 31,430) | (419 784) | (724 1010) | |

Max Infected | 1,441 | 110 | 208 |

(1333 1548) | (78 143) | (185 232) | |

Total Days | 113.12 | 100.88 | 149 |

(105.44 120.79) | (92.16 109.62) | (137 170) | |

Days to Max | 74.18 | 69.26 | 66 |

(67.14 81.21) | (61.99 76.53) | (49 83) |

No Interventions | Vaccination | School Closures | |
---|---|---|---|

Total Infected | 26,134 | 2339 | 1078 |

(23,870 28,367) | (2256 2422) | (953 1203) | |

Max Infected | 2144 | 753 | 373 |

(1956 2331) | (723 784) | (343 404) | |

Total Days | 114.86 | 135.38 | 141.44 |

(107.28 122.44) | (131.48 139.47) | (127.84 155.04) | |

Days to Max | 57.11 | 81.13 | 54.51 |

(52.13 62.09) | (78.15 85.10) | (46.56 62.47) |

**Table 6.**Key characteristics from the COVID-19 model with an ${R}_{0}$ of 3.28 with and without Irish Interventions.

No Intervention | Irish Interventions | |
---|---|---|

Total Infected | 26,134 | 304.41 |

(23,870 28,367) | (198.71 410.11) | |

Maximum Infected | 2144 | 48.14 |

(1956 2331) | (33.12 63.17) | |

Total Days | 114.86 | 142.13 |

(107.28 122.44) | (118.91 165.34) | |

Days to Max | 57.11 | 63.43 |

(52.13 62.09) | (48.60 78.25) |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hunter, E.; Kelleher, J.D. Adapting an Agent-Based Model of Infectious Disease Spread in an Irish County to COVID-19. *Systems* **2021**, *9*, 41.
https://doi.org/10.3390/systems9020041

**AMA Style**

Hunter E, Kelleher JD. Adapting an Agent-Based Model of Infectious Disease Spread in an Irish County to COVID-19. *Systems*. 2021; 9(2):41.
https://doi.org/10.3390/systems9020041

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hunter, Elizabeth, and John D. Kelleher. 2021. "Adapting an Agent-Based Model of Infectious Disease Spread in an Irish County to COVID-19" *Systems* 9, no. 2: 41.
https://doi.org/10.3390/systems9020041