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The Actor: The Key Determinator in Service Ecosystems

Business School, Inland Norway University of Applied Science, 2418 Elverum, Norway
Academic Editors: Francesco Polese, Luca Carrubbo and Orlando Troisi
Systems 2017, 5(2), 38;
Received: 4 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Service Systems)
PDF [622 KB, uploaded 19 May 2017]


Most descriptions of service ecosystems, which provide the foundations for value co-creation, focus on resource integration. In contrast, this article emphasizes the actor’s key role as the foundation resource for value co-creation by looking at both societal- and individual-focused realms, which include the different social aspects of service ecosystems. Institutional arrangements, positions, schemas as mental models, and practices constitute the basis realms influencing the actor in his or her value creation. Societal- and individual-focused realms are dual structures that are in constant interaction. The interdependency of the realms is made apparent through the service ecosystem’s ability to define how resources are understood, assessed, and applied. A thorough examination of the realms that influence the actors embedded in service ecosystems suggests that social forces guide and are guided by actors. This article offers six guidelines for understanding the vital role of actors in service ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: service ecosystem; actor; foundation resource; institutions; mental model; practice service ecosystem; actor; foundation resource; institutions; mental model; practice

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tronvoll, B. The Actor: The Key Determinator in Service Ecosystems. Systems 2017, 5, 38.

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