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Determining Soil Microbial Communities and Their Influence on Ganoderma Disease Incidences in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) via High-Throughput Sequencing

1
School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
2
Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn. Bhd., Petaling Jaya 47810, Malaysia
3
Monash University Malaysia Genomics Facility, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(12), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120424
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 23 November 2020 / Accepted: 25 November 2020 / Published: 27 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Student Papers)
Biological and physicochemical soil factors involved in the incidence of the basal stem rot (BSR) disease in an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation in Malaysia were characterized. Blenheim soil with a low BSR disease incidence and Bernam soil with high BSR disease incidence were analyzed and observed to have differences in composition and diversity of soil prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. Blenheim soil with a high pH and calcium was shown to have higher prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity compared to Bernam soil. High abundances of rare metabolically diverse and versatile bacterial taxa, bacterial taxa that increased with the introduction of biocontrol agents, potential disease-suppressive bacteria, and bacterivorous flagellates were observed in Blenheim soil. In contrast, Bernam soil was predominantly characterized by potential disease-inducible bacterial taxa. A combination of both abiotic and biotic elements might be essential in driving disease-suppressive soil microbiome toward Ganoderma BSR in Blenheim soil.
Basal stem rot (BSR), caused by Ganoderma boninense, is the most devastating oil palm disease in South East Asia, costing US$500 million annually. Various soil physicochemical parameters have been associated with an increase in BSR incidences. However, very little attention has been directed to understanding the relationship between soil microbiome and BSR incidence in oil palm fields. The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial diversities of two coastal soils, Blenheim soil (Typic Quartzipsamment—calcareous shell deposits, light texture) with low disease incidence (1.9%) and Bernam soil (Typic Endoaquept—non-acid sulfate) with high disease incidence (33.1%), were determined using the 16S (V3–V4 region) and 18S (V9 region) rRNA amplicon sequencing. Soil physicochemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations, micronutrients, and soil physical parameters) were also analyzed for the two coastal soils. Results revealed that Blenheim soil comprises higher prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversities, accompanied by higher pH and calcium content. Blenheim soil was observed to have a higher relative abundance of bacterial taxa associated with disease suppression such as Calditrichaeota, Zixibacteria, GAL15, Omnitrophicaeota, Rokubacteria, AKYG587 (Planctomycetes), JdFR-76 (Calditrichaeota), and Rubrobacter (Actinobacteria). In contrast, Bernam soil had a higher proportion of other bacterial taxa, Chloroflexi and Acidothermus (Actinobacteria). Cercomonas (Cercozoa) and Calcarisporiella (Ascomycota) were eukaryotes that are abundant in Blenheim soil, while Uronema (Ciliophora) and mammals were present in higher abundance in Bernam soil. Some of the bacterial taxa have been reported previously in disease-suppressive and -conducive soils as potential disease-suppressive or disease-inducible bacteria. Furthermore, Cercomonas was reported previously as potential bacterivorous flagellates involved in the selection of highly toxic biocontrol bacteria, which might contribute to disease suppression indirectly. The results from this study may provide valuable information related to soil microbial community structures and their association with soil characteristics and soil susceptibility to Ganoderma. View Full-Text
Keywords: basal stem rot; disease incidence; microbiome; suppressive soil basal stem rot; disease incidence; microbiome; suppressive soil
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goh, Y.K.; Zoqratt, M.Z.H.M.; Goh, Y.K.; Ayub, Q.; Ting, A.S.Y. Determining Soil Microbial Communities and Their Influence on Ganoderma Disease Incidences in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) via High-Throughput Sequencing. Biology 2020, 9, 424. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120424

AMA Style

Goh YK, Zoqratt MZHM, Goh YK, Ayub Q, Ting ASY. Determining Soil Microbial Communities and Their Influence on Ganoderma Disease Incidences in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) via High-Throughput Sequencing. Biology. 2020; 9(12):424. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120424

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goh, Yit K., Muhammad Z.H.M. Zoqratt, You K. Goh, Qasim Ayub, and Adeline S.Y. Ting 2020. "Determining Soil Microbial Communities and Their Influence on Ganoderma Disease Incidences in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) via High-Throughput Sequencing" Biology 9, no. 12: 424. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9120424

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