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Open AccessArticle

Asparagopsis armata Exudate Cocktail: The Quest for the Mechanisms of Toxic Action of an Invasive Seaweed on Marine Invertebrates

1
MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, 2520-641 Peniche, Portugal
2
Department of Biology and CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Environmental Chemistry Department, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John R. Turner
Biology 2021, 10(3), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10030223
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 7 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 March 2021 / Published: 14 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
The invasive red seaweed Asparagopsis armata exhibits a strong invasive behavior, producing harmful secondary metabolites that negatively affect the surrounding community. This study addressed the antioxidant defenses, oxidative damage, and a neuronal parameter, as well as the fatty acid composition responses to sublethal concentrations of A. armata released compounds on the marine snail Gibbula umbilicalis and the shrimp Palaemon serratus. Results revealed that the test species had different metabolic responses to the A. armata exudate concentrations tested. Impacts in G. umbilicalis does not seem to arise from oxidative stress or neurotoxicity, while for P. elegans, an inhibition of AChE and the decrease of antioxidant capacity and increase of LPO suggest neurotoxicity and oxidative stress as contributing to the observed toxicity. Additionally, there were different fatty acid profile changes between species, but omega-3 PUFAs ARA and DPA increased in both invertebrates, indicating a common regulation mechanism of inflammation and immunity responses.
The seaweed Asparagopsis armata exhibits a strong invasive behavior, producing halogenated compounds with effective biological effects. This study addresses the biochemical responses to sublethal concentrations of A. armata exudate on the marine snail Gibbula umbilicalis whole body and the shrimp Palaemon elegans eyes and hepatopancreas. Antioxidant defenses superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), oxidative damage endpoints lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage, the neuronal parameter acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and the fatty acid profile were evaluated. Results revealed different metabolic responses in both species. Despite previous studies indicating that the exudate affected G. umbilicalis’ survival and behavior, this does not seem to result from oxidative stress or neurotoxicity. For P. elegans, the inhibition of AChE and the decrease of antioxidant capacity is concomitant with the increase of LPO, suggesting neurotoxicity and oxidative stress as contributor mechanisms of toxicity for this species. Fatty acid profile changes were more pronounced for P. elegans with a general increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with the exudate exposure, which commonly means a defense mechanism protecting from membrane disruption. Nonetheless, the omega-3 PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) increased in both invertebrates, indicating a common regulation mechanism of inflammation and immunity responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; fatty acid profile; halogenated compounds; oxidative stress; red macroalgae; secondary metabolites biomarkers; fatty acid profile; halogenated compounds; oxidative stress; red macroalgae; secondary metabolites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, C.O.; Simões, T.; Félix, R.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Barata, C.; Novais, S.C.; Lemos, M.F.L. Asparagopsis armata Exudate Cocktail: The Quest for the Mechanisms of Toxic Action of an Invasive Seaweed on Marine Invertebrates. Biology 2021, 10, 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10030223

AMA Style

Silva CO, Simões T, Félix R, Soares AMVM, Barata C, Novais SC, Lemos MFL. Asparagopsis armata Exudate Cocktail: The Quest for the Mechanisms of Toxic Action of an Invasive Seaweed on Marine Invertebrates. Biology. 2021; 10(3):223. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10030223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva, Carla O.; Simões, Tiago; Félix, Rafael; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Barata, Carlos; Novais, Sara C.; Lemos, Marco F.L. 2021. "Asparagopsis armata Exudate Cocktail: The Quest for the Mechanisms of Toxic Action of an Invasive Seaweed on Marine Invertebrates" Biology 10, no. 3: 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10030223

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