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Article

Extraction of Aloesin from Aloe vera Rind Using Alternative Green Solvents: Process Optimization and Biological Activity Assessment

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”—National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
aCourela do Alentejo, Garro Pinheiro de Baixo CCI3, Varche, 7350-422 Elvas, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jessica Capraro, Alessio Scarafoni and Ederlan S. Ferreira
Biology 2021, 10(10), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10100951
Received: 30 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
Aloesin is a bioactive constituent of Aloe spp. used primarily in cosmetic products. Its recovery from plant materials is affected by several variables that can compromise the process yield and profitability, which is why it is necessary to determine the best processing conditions. This study describes the design and optimization of a method for extraction of aloesin from Aloe vera rind, a leaf part often discarded as a by-product, using the response surface methodology. The effect of the variables time, temperature, solvent composition, and solid/liquid ratio were investigated. Green organic solvents (ethanol, propylene glycol, and glycerol) were used in aqueous mixtures. Aqueous propylene glycol was found to be the most promising solvent for aloesin recovery and a linear increase in extraction yields was verified with the increase in solid/liquid ratio. To assess the bioactivity of the extracts, their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and the fungal and bacterial growth, as well as their cytotoxic potential, was tested in vitro. Overall, it was possible to determine the best extraction conditions for aloesin and to better understand the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the aloesin-rich extracts, which may be produced and used by the industrial sector.
Aloesin is an aromatic chromone with increasing applications in the cosmetic and health food industries. To optimize its extraction from the Aloe vera leaf rind, the independent variables time (10–210 min), temperature (25–95 °C) and organic solvent composition (0–100%, w/w) were combined in a central composite design coupled with response surface methodology. The solvents consisted of binary mixtures of water with ethanol, propylene glycol, or glycerol. The aloesin levels quantified in each extract were used as response for optimization. The theoretical models were fitted to the experimental data, statistically validated, and used to obtain the optimal extraction conditions. Then, a dose–response analysis of the solid/liquid ratio (S/L) was performed under the optimal conditions determined for each alcohol–water system and revealed that a linear improvement in extraction efficiency can be achieved by increasing the S/L ratio by up to 40 g/L. This analysis also allowed to experimentally validate the predictive models. Furthermore, the aloesin-rich extracts revealed antioxidant activity through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition, antimicrobial effects against bacterial and fungal strains, and no toxicity for PLP2 cells. Overall, this study provided optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of aloesin from Aloe vera rind through an eco-friendly extraction process and highlighted its bioactive potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: aloesin; Aloe vera green rind; process optimization; aqueous glycolic solvents; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxicity aloesin; Aloe vera green rind; process optimization; aqueous glycolic solvents; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Añibarro-Ortega, M.; Pinela, J.; Ćirić, A.; Lopes, E.; Molina, A.K.; Calhelha, R.C.; Soković, M.; Ferreira, O.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Barros, L. Extraction of Aloesin from Aloe vera Rind Using Alternative Green Solvents: Process Optimization and Biological Activity Assessment. Biology 2021, 10, 951. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10100951

AMA Style

Añibarro-Ortega M, Pinela J, Ćirić A, Lopes E, Molina AK, Calhelha RC, Soković M, Ferreira O, Ferreira ICFR, Barros L. Extraction of Aloesin from Aloe vera Rind Using Alternative Green Solvents: Process Optimization and Biological Activity Assessment. Biology. 2021; 10(10):951. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10100951

Chicago/Turabian Style

Añibarro-Ortega, Mikel, José Pinela, Ana Ćirić, Elsa Lopes, Adriana K. Molina, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Marina Soković, Olga Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, and Lillian Barros. 2021. "Extraction of Aloesin from Aloe vera Rind Using Alternative Green Solvents: Process Optimization and Biological Activity Assessment" Biology 10, no. 10: 951. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10100951

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