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Fibers 2017, 5(2), 17;

Exploration of Wave Development during Yarn Transverse Impact

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Program Executive Office – Soldier, US Army, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060, USA
School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Currently with Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123, USA.
Academic Editor: John W. Gillespie
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Fibers)
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Single yarns have been impacted in a transverse fashion so as to probe the characteristics of resulting wave development. Longitudinal wave speeds were tracked in efforts to directly measure the yarn tensile stiffness, resulting in a slight increase in the modulus of Kevlar® KM2 and Dyneema® SK76. Additionally, the load developed in AuTx® and Kevlar® KM2 yarns behind the longitudinal wave front has been recorded, providing additional verification for the Smith relations. Further effort to bolster the Smith equations has been successfully performed via tracking transverse wave speeds in AuTx® yarns over a range of impacting velocities. Additional emphasis has been placed at understanding the transverse wave development around the yarn critical velocity, demonstrating that there is a velocity zone where partial yarn failure is detected. Above the critical velocity, measurement of early time transverse wave speeds also agrees with the Smith solution, though the wave speed quickly reduces in value due to the drop in tensile stresses resulting from filament rupture. Finally, the Smith equations have been simplified and are compared to the Cunniff equation, which bear a striking resemblance. Due to such a resemblance, it is suggested that yarn critical velocity experiments can be performed on trial yarn material, and the effect of modifying yarn mechanical properties is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kevlar®; Dyneema®; transverse impact; projectile; wave speed; Cunniff velocity; critical velocity Kevlar®; Dyneema®; transverse impact; projectile; wave speed; Cunniff velocity; critical velocity

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Hudspeth, M.; Jewell, E.; Horner, S.; Zheng, J.; Chen, W. Exploration of Wave Development during Yarn Transverse Impact. Fibers 2017, 5, 17.

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