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Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanofibrils with Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane

1
Biorefinery Processes Research Group, Faculty of Engineering Gipuzkoa, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Plaza Europa, 1. 20018 Donostia, Spain
2
Institute of Wood-Based Products and Technologies, University of Sopron, Bajcsy-Zs. E. u. 4, 9400 Sopron, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8040139
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Cellulose Fibres)
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Abstract

Nine different surface modifications of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (ATS) by using three different solvent systems (water, ethanol, and a mixture of both) were investigated. The effect of reaction conditions, such as silane to cellulose ratio and solvent type were evaluated to determine their contribution to the extent of the silane modification. Nanofibril properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, surface free energy, thermogravimetry, 13C and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, and electronic microscopy. The influence of the solvent in the solvolysis of the silane was reflected in the presence or absence of ethoxy groups in the silane. On the other hand, whereas the surface modification was increased directly proportionally to silane ratio on the reaction, the aggregation of nanofibrils was also increased, which can play a negative role in certain applications. The increment of silane modification also had substantial repercussions on the crystallinity of the nanofibrils by the addition of amorphous components to the crystalline unit; moreover, silane surface modifications enhanced the hydrophobic character of the nanofibrils. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose nanofibrils; 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane; solvolysis; cellulose grafting cellulose nanofibrils; 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane; solvolysis; cellulose grafting
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Robles, E.; Csóka, L.; Labidi, J. Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanofibrils with Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane. Coatings 2018, 8, 139.

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