The rolling process is one of the most effective ways for strengthening a part’s surface. As the press force exerted on specimen in rolling process, material in the surface layer will deform plastically if the press force is sufficient. That might result in grain refinement, dislocation configuration change, or phase change in specimen surface layer material. Consequently, the surface material mechanical properties can be changed. The effects of rolling parameters on surface residual stress, micro-hardness, and surface roughness for a 210Cr12 shaft have been investigated. After the rolling process, the surface residual stress of the specimen changes from tensile stress to compressive stress, and a stable residual compressive stress layer is formed. The maximum absolute value of compressive stress can be up to 216MPa. With the increase of the value of contact stress exerted on shaft surface and the number of rolling cycles, the absolute value of residual compressive stress increases firstly and then becomes stable. With the increase of depth from shaft surface to interior, the absolute value of residual compressive stress increases initially, then decreases and disappears finally. The maximum absolute value of residual compressive stress exists at the position beneath specimen surface about 0.025mm. The depth of residual stress layer is about 0.2 mm. Research results indicate that shaft surface microhardness can be improved within small range, surface roughness can be reduced up to 67%.
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