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Antibiotics 2017, 6(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics6040025

Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik’s Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
2
Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, 6725 Szeged, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonard Amaral
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Top 35 of Antibiotics Travel Awards 2017)
Full-Text   |   PDF [356 KB, uploaded 7 November 2017]

Abstract

Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic bacteria; susceptibility testing; methodology; antimicrobial resistance; MALDI-TOF MS; Bacteroides fragilis group; Clostridium spp. taxonomy; metronidazole; β-lactams anaerobic bacteria; susceptibility testing; methodology; antimicrobial resistance; MALDI-TOF MS; Bacteroides fragilis group; Clostridium spp. taxonomy; metronidazole; β-lactams
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gajdács, M.; Spengler, G.; Urbán, E. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik’s Cube of Clinical Microbiology? Antibiotics 2017, 6, 25.

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