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Article

Self-Medication as an Important Risk Factor for Antibiotic Resistance: A Multi-Institutional Survey among Students

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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biomedical and Health Science, The University of Haripur, Haripur 22610, Pakistan
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Department of Microbiology, Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute & Research Center, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Medical Education, King Edward Medical University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Medical Education, Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
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Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran 31311, Saudi Arabia
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College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Public Health and Nutrition, The University of Haripur, Haripur 22610, Pakistan
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Department of Community Medicine and Health Care for Pilgrims, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hafr Al Batin, Hafr Al Batin 39831, Saudi Arabia
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Specialty Paediatric Medicine, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif 32654, Saudi Arabia
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Immunology and Infectious Microbiology Department, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G1 1XQ, UK
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Microbiology Department, Collage of Medicine, Jabriya 46300, Kuwait
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Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaoxv Yin
Antibiotics 2022, 11(7), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070842
Received: 7 June 2022 / Revised: 20 June 2022 / Accepted: 22 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Antibiotic Use)
Self-medication is an important issue, especially in developing countries. Self-medication is the concept in which individuals use medicine to ease and manage their minor illnesses. The current survey was designed to conduct interviews at different universities based on the availability of the students from August 2021 to October 2021 in Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Overall, 1250 questionnaires were distributed to students from various departments. Students of microbiology (n = 305, 24.4%) and agriculture 236 (n = 18.8%) were the most elevated members in this study, while other participants were from medical lab technology (n = 118, 9.4%), chemistry (n = 103, 8.2%), food science (n = 92, 7.3%), business administration (n = 83, 6.6%), sociology (n = 78, 6.2%), math/physics (n = 6, 14.8%), Pak study (n = 58, 4.6%), English (n = 47, 3.7%), and psychology (n = 19, 1.5%). Students working towards their Bachelor numbered (n = 913, 73.0%), Master (minor) numbered (n = 80, 6.4%), Master (major) numbered (n = 221, 17.6%), and Doctorate numbered (n = 36, 2.8%). The age group of participants was majorly 20–25 years (61.0%), while others belonged to the age groups 25–30 years (20.6%), 30–35 years (9.8%), and 35–40 years (8.4%). The mean and standard deviation of daily practices of self-medication were observed (M = 416.667, SD = 1,026,108.667) and p = 0.002. The mean and standard deviation of daily practices of antibiotic knowledge was (M = 431.5, SD = 1,615,917) and p = 0.002. Antimicrobial agents were leading over others with 631 (50.4%), followed by anti-inflammatory with 331 (26.4%), multivitamins with 142 (11.3%), gynecological purpose with 59 (4.7%), and analgesic with 72 (5.7%), while the lowest frequency rate was observed against herbal remedies with 15 (1.2%). The results of the current study concluded that students practiced self-medication for reasons such as convenience to obtain these medications from cheap sources and to avoid the fee of a physician. They searched for the medicine on social media platforms and purchased it blindly from the pharmacy without any prescription from a physician. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; Pakistan; antibiotic knowledge; health belief model; self-medication antimicrobial stewardship; Pakistan; antibiotic knowledge; health belief model; self-medication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zeb, S.; Mushtaq, M.; Ahmad, M.; Saleem, W.; Rabaan, A.A.; Naqvi, B.S.Z.; Garout, M.; Aljeldah, M.; Al Shammari, B.R.; Al Faraj, N.J.; Al-Zaki, N.A.; Al Marshood, M.J.; Al Saffar, T.Y.; Alsultan, K.A.; Al-Ahmed, S.H.; Alestad, J.H.; Naveed, M.; Ahmed, N. Self-Medication as an Important Risk Factor for Antibiotic Resistance: A Multi-Institutional Survey among Students. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 842. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070842

AMA Style

Zeb S, Mushtaq M, Ahmad M, Saleem W, Rabaan AA, Naqvi BSZ, Garout M, Aljeldah M, Al Shammari BR, Al Faraj NJ, Al-Zaki NA, Al Marshood MJ, Al Saffar TY, Alsultan KA, Al-Ahmed SH, Alestad JH, Naveed M, Ahmed N. Self-Medication as an Important Risk Factor for Antibiotic Resistance: A Multi-Institutional Survey among Students. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(7):842. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070842

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zeb, Shah, Mariam Mushtaq, Muneeb Ahmad, Waqas Saleem, Ali A. Rabaan, Bibi S.Z. Naqvi, Mohammed Garout, Mohammed Aljeldah, Basim R. Al Shammari, Nehad J. Al Faraj, Nisreen A. Al-Zaki, Mona J. Al Marshood, Thuria Y. Al Saffar, Khadija A. Alsultan, Shamsah H. Al-Ahmed, Jeehan H. Alestad, Muhammad Naveed, and Naveed Ahmed. 2022. "Self-Medication as an Important Risk Factor for Antibiotic Resistance: A Multi-Institutional Survey among Students" Antibiotics 11, no. 7: 842. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070842

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