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Existence of Multiple ESBL Genes among Phenotypically Confirmed ESBL Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli Concurrently Isolated from Clinical, Colonization and Contamination Samples from Neonatal Units at Bugando Medical Center, Mwanza, Tanzania

A Complementary Herbal Product for Controlling Giardiasis

Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt
Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Unaizah College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Unaizah 51911, Saudi Arabia
Department of Medical laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia
Qena University Hospital, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt
Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Sam Houston State University, Conroe, TX 77304, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William N. Setzer
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 477;
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 18 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 21 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Plant-Derived Antibiotics)
Giardiasis is an intestinal protozoal disease caused by Giardia lamblia. The disease became a global health issue due to development of resistance to commonly used drugs. Since many plant-derived products have been used to treat many parasitic infestations, we aimed to assess the therapeutic utility of Artemisia annua (A. annua) for giardiasis. We showed that NO production was significantly reduced whereas serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were elevated in infected hamsters compared to uninfected ones. Additionally, infection resulted in increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes and reduced villi heights, goblet cell numbers, and muscularis externa thickness. We also showed that inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and caspase-3 were elevated in the intestine of infected animals. However, treatment with A. annua significantly reduced the intestinal trophozoite counts and IEL numbers, serum IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, while increasing NO and restoring villi heights, GC numbers, and ME thickness. Moreover, A. annua treatment resulted in lower levels of caspase-3, which indicates a protective effect from apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, A. annua therapeutic effects are comparable to metronidazole. In conclusion, our results show that A. annua extract is effective in alleviating infection-induced intestinal inflammation and pathological effects, which implies its potential therapeutic utility in controlling giardiasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: giardiasis; NO; IL-6; TNF-α; IFN-γ giardiasis; NO; IL-6; TNF-α; IFN-γ
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abd-Elhamid, T.H.; Abdel-Rahman, I.A.M.; Mahmoud, A.R.; Allemailem, K.S.; Almatroudi, A.; Fouad, S.S.; Abdella, O.H.; Elshabrawy, H.A.; El-Kady, A.M. A Complementary Herbal Product for Controlling Giardiasis. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 477.

AMA Style

Abd-Elhamid TH, Abdel-Rahman IAM, Mahmoud AR, Allemailem KS, Almatroudi A, Fouad SS, Abdella OH, Elshabrawy HA, El-Kady AM. A Complementary Herbal Product for Controlling Giardiasis. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(5):477.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abd-Elhamid, Tarek H., Iman A.M. Abdel-Rahman, Amany R. Mahmoud, Khaled S. Allemailem, Ahmad Almatroudi, Samer S. Fouad, Osama H. Abdella, Hatem A. Elshabrawy, and Asmaa M. El-Kady 2021. "A Complementary Herbal Product for Controlling Giardiasis" Antibiotics 10, no. 5: 477.

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