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Article

Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross Sectional Study

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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Pengkalan Chepa, Kota Bharu 16100, Kelantan, Malaysia
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The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield AL9 7TA, Hertfordshire, UK
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Centre for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, London NW3 2PF, UK
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Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
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College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Hilat Kuku, Khartoum North 13321, Sudan
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Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020117
Received: 26 December 2020 / Revised: 17 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
Antimicrobial resistance is of concern to global health security worldwide. We aimed to identify the prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) resistance from poultry farms in Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang states of east coast peninsular Malaysia. Between 8 February 2019 and 23 February 2020, a total of 371 samples (cloacal swabs = 259; faecal = 84; Sewage = 14, Tap water = 14) were collected. Characteristics of the sampled farms including management type, biosecurity, and history of disease were obtained using semi-structured questionnaire. Presumptive E. coli isolates were identified based on colony morphology with subsequent biochemical and PCR confirmation. Susceptibility of isolates was tested against a panel of 12 antimicrobials and interpreted alongside risk factor data obtained from the surveys. We isolated 717 E. coli samples from poultry and environmental samples. Our findings revealed that cloacal (17.8%, 46/259), faecal (22.6%, 19/84), sewage (14.3%, 2/14) and tap water (7.1%, 1/14) were significantly (p < 0.003) resistant to at least three classes of antimicrobials. Resistance to tetracycline class were predominantly observed in faecal samples (69%, 58/84), followed by cloacal (64.1%, 166/259), sewage (35.7%, 5/14), and tap water (7.1%, 1/84), respectively. Sewage water (OR = 7.22, 95% CI = 0.95–151.21) had significant association with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) acquisition. Multivariate regression analysis identified that the risk factors including sewage samples (OR = 7.43, 95% CI = 0.96–156.87) and farm size are leading drivers of E. coli antimicrobial resistance in the participating states of east coast peninsular Malaysia. We observed that the resistance patterns of E. coli isolates against 12 panel antimicrobials are generally similar in all selected states of east coast peninsular Malaysia. The highest prevalence of resistance was recorded in tetracycline (91.2%), oxytetracycline (89.1%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (73.1%), doxycycline (63%), and sulfamethoxazole (63%). A close association between different risk factors and the high prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains reflects increased exposure to resistant bacteria and suggests a concern over rising misuse of veterinary antimicrobials that may contribute to the future threat of emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogen isolates. Public health interventions to limit antimicrobial resistance need to be tailored to local poultry farm practices that affect bacterial transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistant; Escherichia coli; distribution; poultry farms; environment; east coast of peninsular Malaysia antimicrobial resistant; Escherichia coli; distribution; poultry farms; environment; east coast of peninsular Malaysia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elmi, S.A.; Simons, D.; Elton, L.; Haider, N.; Abdel Hamid, M.M.; Shuaib, Y.A.; Khan, M.A.; Othman, I.; Kock, R.; Osman, A.Y. Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross Sectional Study. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 117. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020117

AMA Style

Elmi SA, Simons D, Elton L, Haider N, Abdel Hamid MM, Shuaib YA, Khan MA, Othman I, Kock R, Osman AY. Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross Sectional Study. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(2):117. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020117

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elmi, Sharifo A., David Simons, Linzy Elton, Najmul Haider, Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid, Yassir A. Shuaib, Mohd A. Khan, Iekhsan Othman, Richard Kock, and Abdinasir Y. Osman. 2021. "Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross Sectional Study" Antibiotics 10, no. 2: 117. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020117

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