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Article

Kynurenic Acid Electrochemical Immunosensor: Blood-Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Department of Electronics and Biomedical engineering, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Monforte de Lemos 3-5, Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Nanobiotechnology for Diagnostics (Nb4D) Group, Institute for Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
4
Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), 12 Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biosensors 2021, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11010020
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 3 January 2021 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Related Disorders)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a functional deterioration of the brain. Currently, there are selected biomarkers for its diagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid. However, its extraction has several disadvantages for the patient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a detection method using sensitive and selective blood-based biomarkers. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a potential biomarker candidate for this purpose. The alteration of the KYNA levels in blood has been related with inflammatory processes in the brain, produced as a protective function when neurons are damaged. This paper describes a novel electrochemical immunosensor for KYNA detection, based on successive functionalization multi-electrode array. The resultant sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed biosensor detects KYNA within a linear calibration range from 10 pM to 100 nM using CA and EIS, obtaining a limit of detection (LOD) of 16.9 pM and 37.6 pM in buffer, respectively, being the lowest reported LOD for this biomarker. Moreover, to assess our device closer to the real application, the developed immunosensor was also tested under human serum matrix, obtaining an LOD of 391.71 pM for CA and 278.8 pM for EIS with diluted serum. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD); immunosensor; kynurenic acid (KYNA); electrochemical biosensor; chronoamperometry (CA); electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); blood analysis; point of care diagnosis (PoC); in vitro diagnosis (IVD) Alzheimer’s disease (AD); immunosensor; kynurenic acid (KYNA); electrochemical biosensor; chronoamperometry (CA); electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); blood analysis; point of care diagnosis (PoC); in vitro diagnosis (IVD)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marrugo-Ramírez, J.; Rodríguez-Núñez, M.; Marco, M.-P.; Mir, M.; Samitier, J. Kynurenic Acid Electrochemical Immunosensor: Blood-Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease. Biosensors 2021, 11, 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11010020

AMA Style

Marrugo-Ramírez J, Rodríguez-Núñez M, Marco M-P, Mir M, Samitier J. Kynurenic Acid Electrochemical Immunosensor: Blood-Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease. Biosensors. 2021; 11(1):20. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11010020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marrugo-Ramírez, Jose, Montserrat Rodríguez-Núñez, M.-Pilar Marco, Mónica Mir, and Josep Samitier. 2021. "Kynurenic Acid Electrochemical Immunosensor: Blood-Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease" Biosensors 11, no. 1: 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11010020

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