The Nb3+ ion substituted Sr hexaferrites (SrNbx
O19 (x = 0.00–0.08) hexaferrites (HFs)) were fabricated via a citrate-assisted sol-gel approach. X-ray powder diffractometer analysis affirmed the pureness of all products. The crystallite sizes of the products which were estimated from Scherrer equation were in the 36–40 nm range. The chemical component of the samples was proved by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Elemental mapping. The hexagonal morphology of all products was confirmed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrical conduction mechanisms and dielectric properties of a variety of Nb3+ions-substituted SrNbx
O19 HFs were investigated by a complex impedance system. Dielectric parameters such as conductivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, dielectric tangent loss and complex modulus, were studied at temperatures up to 120 °C in a frequency range varying from 1.0 Hz to 3.0 MHz for several Nb ratios. The frequency dependence of the conductivity was found to comply with the power law with diverse exponents at all frequencies studied here. Subsequently, incremental tendencies in dc conductivity with temperature indicate that the substituted Sr-HFs leads to a semiconductor-semimetal like behavior. This could be attributable to a feature of conduction mechanism which is based on the tunneling processes. Additionally, the dielectric dispersion pattern was also explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization in accordance with the Koop’s phenomenological theory.
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