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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040565

Pd Nanocatalyst Adorning Coral Reef Nanocomposite for the Synthesis of Nitriles: Utility of Cucurbita pepo Leaf Extract as a Stabilizing and Reducing Agent

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom 37185-359, Iran
2
Department of Petroleum Geoscience, Faculty of Science, Soran University, P.O. Box 624 Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
3
Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 7 April 2019
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Abstract

A simple procedure for the palladium-catalyzed cyanation of aryl halides is described via a nucleophilic non-toxic cyanide source, K4[Fe(CN)6] in the presence of Pd/coral reef nanocomposite as a heterogeneous catalyst; the protocol provides a useful and easy method for the synthesis of aryl nitriles that are generated from the corresponding variant aryl halides, with sodium carbonate as a base. The nanocatalyst was prepared by a biological process using aqueous extract of leaves of Cucurbita pepo as a stabilizing and reducing agent and coral reef as a natural support, without deploying any hazardous chemicals. The catalyst, that is easily separable from the reaction mixture and reused multiple times, was characterized by FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy), EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and elemental mapping. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanation; aryl halide; Pd/coral reef nanocomposite; Cucurbita pepo; Pd nanoparticles cyanation; aryl halide; Pd/coral reef nanocomposite; Cucurbita pepo; Pd nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nasrollahzadeh, M.; Ghorbannezhad, F.; Sajadi, S.M.; Varma, R.S. Pd Nanocatalyst Adorning Coral Reef Nanocomposite for the Synthesis of Nitriles: Utility of Cucurbita pepo Leaf Extract as a Stabilizing and Reducing Agent. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 565.

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