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Open AccessArticle

Synthesis of Nanofibrillated Cellulose by Combined Ammonium Persulphate Treatment with Ultrasound and Mechanical Processing

1
Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Dzerbenes Street 27, LV-2121 Riga, Latvia
2
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090640
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocelluloses: Synthesis, Modification and Applications)
Ammonium persulfate has been known as an agent for obtaining nanocellulose in recent years, however most research has focused on producing cellulose nanocrystals. A lack of research about combined ammonium persulfate oxidation and common mechanical treatment in order to obtain cellulose nanofibrils has been identified. The objective of this research was to obtain and investigate carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils produced by ammonium persulfate oxidation combined with ultrasonic and mechanical treatment. Light microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-Ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Zeta potential measurements were applied during this research. The carboxylated cellulose suspension of different fractions including nanofibrils, microfibrils and bundles were produced from bleached birch Kraft pulp fibers using chemical pretreatment with ammonium persulfate solution and further defibrillation using consequent mechanical treatment in a high shear laboratory mixer and ultrasonication. The characteristics of the obtained nanofibrils were: diameter 20–300 nm, crystallinity index 74.3%, Zeta potential −26.9 ± 1.8 mV, clear FTIR peak at 1740 cm−1 indicating the C=O stretching vibrations, and lower thermostability in comparison to the Kraft pulp was observed. The proposed method can be used to produce cellulose nanofibrils with defined crystallinity. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocellulose; ammonium persulfate; oxidation; nanofibrils; high shear mixer nanocellulose; ammonium persulfate; oxidation; nanofibrils; high shear mixer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Filipova, I.; Fridrihsone, V.; Cabulis, U.; Berzins, A. Synthesis of Nanofibrillated Cellulose by Combined Ammonium Persulphate Treatment with Ultrasound and Mechanical Processing. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 640. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090640

AMA Style

Filipova I, Fridrihsone V, Cabulis U, Berzins A. Synthesis of Nanofibrillated Cellulose by Combined Ammonium Persulphate Treatment with Ultrasound and Mechanical Processing. Nanomaterials. 2018; 8(9):640. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090640

Chicago/Turabian Style

Filipova, Inese; Fridrihsone, Velta; Cabulis, Ugis; Berzins, Agris. 2018. "Synthesis of Nanofibrillated Cellulose by Combined Ammonium Persulphate Treatment with Ultrasound and Mechanical Processing" Nanomaterials 8, no. 9: 640. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090640

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