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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 344;

Recent Progress in Upconversion Photodynamic Therapy

College of Functional Crystals, Tianjin University of Technology, 300384 Tianjin, China
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin, China
Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, 518060 Shenzhen, China
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive cancer modality that combines a photosensitizer (PS), light, and oxygen. Introduction of new nanotechnologies holds potential to improve PDT performance. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer potentially advantageous benefits for PDT, attributed to their distinct photon upconverting feature. The ability to convert near-infrared (NIR) light into visible or even ultraviolet light via UCNPs allows for the activation of nearby PS agents to produce singlet oxygen, as most PS agents absorb visible and ultraviolet light. The use of a longer NIR wavelength permits light to penetrate deeper into tissue, and thus PDT of a deeper tissue can be effectively achieved with the incorporation of UCNPs. Recent progress in UCNP development has generated the possibility to employ a wide variety of NIR excitation sources in PDT. Use of UCNPs enables concurrent strategies for loading, targeting, and controlling the release of additional drugs. In this review article, recent progress in the development of UCNPs for PDT applications is summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; upconversion nanoparticles; cancers photodynamic therapy; upconversion nanoparticles; cancers

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Qiu, H.; Tan, M.; Ohulchanskyy, T.Y.; Lovell, J.F.; Chen, G. Recent Progress in Upconversion Photodynamic Therapy. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 344.

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