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Anti-EGFR Indocyanine Green-Mitomycin C-Loaded Perfluorocarbon Double Nanoemulsion: A Novel Nanostructure for Targeted Photochemotherapy of Bladder Cancer Cells

by Yu-Hsiang Lee 1,2,* and Yu-Chun Lin 1
1
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, National Central University. No. 300, Jhongda Rd., Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan
2
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050283
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
The use of phototherapy as an adjuvant bladder cancer treatment has long been considered, but its application has been severely hampered due to a lack of tumor specificity, unpredicted cytotoxicity, and insufficient anticancer efficacy. In this study, we aim to manufacture anti-EGFR indocyanine green (ICG) mitomycin C (MMC) encapsulated perfluorocarbon double nanoemulsions (EIMPDNEs), and explore their photochemotherapeutic efficacy on EGFR-expressing bladder cancer cells in vitro. The EIMPDNEs were manufactured using a double emulsification technique followed by antibody conjugation on the particles’ surfaces. The EIMPDNE were 257 ± 19.4 nm in size, with a surface charge of −12.3 ± 2.33 mV. The EGFR targetability of the EIMPNDE was confirmed by its enhanced binding efficiency to T24 cells when compared with the performance of nanodroplets without EGFR conjugation (p < 0.05). In comparison with freely dissolved ICG, the EIMPDNEs with equal ICG content conferred an improved thermal stability to the encapsulated ICG, and were able to provide a comparable hyperthermia effect and significantly enhanced the production of singlet oxygen under 808 nm near infrared (NIR) exposure with an intensity of 6 W cm−2 for 5 min (p < 0.05). Based on viability analyses, our data showed that the EIMPDNEs were effective in bladder cancer cell eradication upon NIR exposure (808 nm; 6 W cm−2), and the resulting cell death rate was even higher than that caused by a five-fold higher amount of entrapped MMC alone. With the merits of improved ICG stability, EGFR binding specificity, and effective cancer cell eradication, the EIMPDNEs exhibit potential for use in EGFR-expressing bladder cancer therapy with lower chemotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: bladder cancer; EGFR; photochemotherapy; indocyanine green; mitomycin C; perfluorocarbon; double emulsion bladder cancer; EGFR; photochemotherapy; indocyanine green; mitomycin C; perfluorocarbon; double emulsion
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Lee, Y.-H.; Lin, Y.-C. Anti-EGFR Indocyanine Green-Mitomycin C-Loaded Perfluorocarbon Double Nanoemulsion: A Novel Nanostructure for Targeted Photochemotherapy of Bladder Cancer Cells. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 283.

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