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Article

Fatty Acid Based Microemulsions to Combat Ophthalmia Neonatorum Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus

1
Drug Discovery, Delivery and Patient Care (DDDPC), School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK
2
School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames KT1 2EE, UK
3
School of Pharmacy, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8010051
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Microemulsions in Biomedical Research)
The bacterial species Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are amongst the main microorganisms that cause ophthalmia neonatorum. The current treatment involves the use of various antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, cephalosporin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. However, this treatment strategy is becoming more ineffective due to the antibiotic resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. The current study explores the potential use of fatty acid based microemulsions (ME) to prevent N. gonorrhoeae and S. aureus infections in new-borns’ eyes without harmful side effects such as corneal or conjunctiva irritation. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to evaluate microemulsion regions and six different α-linolenic acid based microemulsions were prepared. The prepared formulations were characterized for α-linolenic acid content, size, transparency, zeta potential, Polarized light Microscopy, antimicrobial activity and ex vivo ocular toxicity. The mean droplet size of the ME formulations was in the range of 190.4 to 350.5 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) values were in the range of 0.102 to 0.561. All formulations were found stable upon storage for at least 8 weeks. In addition, self-diffusion coefficients determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) reflected that the diffusability of water increased at higher than 30% w/w water, while that of fatty acids and surfactants was in reverse. The antimicrobial efficacy of microemulsions was determined against N. gonorrhoeae and S. aureus. It was concluded that all microemulsions have strong antimicrobial effects against N. gonorrhoeae and S. aureus. Finally, bovine corneal opacity permeability (BCOP) and hen’s egg chorioallantoic (HET-CAM) tests results showed that all microemulsion formulations were not strong ocular irritants. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acid; ophthalmia neonatorum; microemulsion; pseudo-ternary phase diagram; ocular toxicity/irritation potential fatty acid; ophthalmia neonatorum; microemulsion; pseudo-ternary phase diagram; ocular toxicity/irritation potential
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MDPI and ACS Style

Butt, U.; ElShaer, A.; Snyder, L.A.S.; Al-Kinani, A.A.; Le Gresley, A.; Alany, R.G. Fatty Acid Based Microemulsions to Combat Ophthalmia Neonatorum Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8010051

AMA Style

Butt U, ElShaer A, Snyder LAS, Al-Kinani AA, Le Gresley A, Alany RG. Fatty Acid Based Microemulsions to Combat Ophthalmia Neonatorum Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus. Nanomaterials. 2018; 8(1):51. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8010051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Butt, Ummara, Amr ElShaer, Lori A.S. Snyder, Ali A. Al-Kinani, Adam Le Gresley, and Raid G. Alany 2018. "Fatty Acid Based Microemulsions to Combat Ophthalmia Neonatorum Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus" Nanomaterials 8, no. 1: 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8010051

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