Next Article in Journal
PEG 400-Based Phase Change Materials Nano-Enhanced with Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets
Next Article in Special Issue
Enhanced and Selective Antiproliferative Activity of Methotrexate-Functionalized-Nanocapsules to Human Breast Cancer Cells (MCF-7)
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: Biodistribution after Intravenous Dosing in Rats
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(1), 15;

Covalent Organic Frameworks: From Materials Design to Biomedical Application

Department of Polymer Science and Technology and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072, China
Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology)
PDF [16977 KB, uploaded 28 December 2017]


Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are newly emerged crystalline porous polymers with well-defined skeletons and nanopores mainly consisted of light-weight elements (H, B, C, N and O) linked by dynamic covalent bonds. Compared with conventional materials, COFs possess some unique and attractive features, such as large surface area, pre-designable pore geometry, excellent crystallinity, inherent adaptability and high flexibility in structural and functional design, thus exhibiting great potential for various applications. Especially, their large surface area and tunable porosity and π conjugation with unique photoelectric properties will enable COFs to serve as a promising platform for drug delivery, bioimaging, biosensing and theranostic applications. In this review, we trace the evolution of COFs in terms of linkages and highlight the important issues on synthetic method, structural design, morphological control and functionalization. And then we summarize the recent advances of COFs in the biomedical and pharmaceutical sectors and conclude with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities of COFs for biomedical purposes. Although currently still at its infancy stage, COFs as an innovative source have paved a new way to meet future challenges in human healthcare and disease theranostic. View Full-Text
Keywords: covalent organic frameworks (COFs); nanomedicine; drug delivery; dynamic covalent bonds; biomedical application covalent organic frameworks (COFs); nanomedicine; drug delivery; dynamic covalent bonds; biomedical application

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, F.; Liu, H.; Mathe, S.D.R.; Dong, A.; Zhang, J. Covalent Organic Frameworks: From Materials Design to Biomedical Application. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 15.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nanomaterials EISSN 2079-4991 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top