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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(8), 199;

Halloysite Nanotubes: Controlled Access and Release by Smart Gates

Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università degli Studi di Palermo Viale delle Scienze, pad. 17, 90128 Palermo, Italy
Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kreml uramı 18, Kazan, 420008 Republic of Tatarstan, Russia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Nanocomposites)
PDF [4078 KB, uploaded 28 July 2017]


Hollow halloysite nanotubes have been used as nanocontainers for loading and for the triggered release of calcium hydroxide for paper preservation. A strategy for placing end-stoppers into the tubular nanocontainer is proposed and the sustained release from the cavity is reported. The incorporation of Ca(OH)2 into the nanotube lumen, as demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping, retards the carbonatation, delaying the reaction with CO2 gas. This effect can be further controlled by placing the end-stoppers. The obtained material is tested for paper deacidification. We prove that adding halloysite filled with Ca(OH)2 to paper can reduce the impact of acid exposure on both the mechanical performance and pH alteration. The end-stoppers have a double effect: they preserve the calcium hydroxide from carbonation, and they prevent from the formation of highly basic pH and trigger the response to acid exposure minimizing the pH drop-down. These features are promising for a composite nanoadditive in the smart protection of cellulose-based materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: halloysite; nanocomposite; cellulose; controlled release halloysite; nanocomposite; cellulose; controlled release

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cavallaro, G.; Danilushkina, A.A.; Evtugyn, V.G.; Lazzara, G.; Milioto, S.; Parisi, F.; Rozhina, E.V.; Fakhrullin, R.F. Halloysite Nanotubes: Controlled Access and Release by Smart Gates. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 199.

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