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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

A Recyclable Cu-MOF-74 Catalyst for the Ligand-Free O-Arylation Reaction of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde and Phenol

1
Department of Chemical and Energy Technology, ESCET. Rey Juan Carlos University, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Spain
2
Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, ICP-CSIC. C/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Patricia Horcajada and Sergio M. F. Vilela
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7060149
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in Metal-Organic Frameworks)
The activity and recyclability of Cu-MOF-74 as a catalyst was studied for the ligand-free C–O cross-coupling reaction of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (NB) with phenol (Ph) to form 4-formyldiphenyl ether (FDE). Cu-MOF-74 is characterized by having unsaturated copper sites in a highly porous metal-organic framework. The influence of solvent, reaction temperature, NB/Ph ratio, catalyst concentration, and basic agent (type and concentration) were evaluated. High conversions were achieved at 120 °C, 5 mol % of catalyst, NB/Ph ratio of 1:2, DMF as solvent, and 1 equivalent of K2CO3 base. The activity of Cu-MOF-74 material was higher than other ligand-free copper catalytic systems tested in this study. This catalyst was easily separated and reused in five successive runs, achieving a remarkable performance without significant porous framework degradation. The leaching of copper species in the reaction medium was negligible. The O-arylation between NB and Ph took place only in the presence of Cu-MOF-74 material, being negligible without the solid catalyst. The catalytic advantages of using nanostructured Cu-MOF-74 catalyst were also proven. View Full-Text
Keywords: MOF; catalyst; recyclable Cu-MOF-74; ligand-free; O-arylation reaction; 4-nitrobenzaldehyde; phenol; 4-formyldiphenyl ether MOF; catalyst; recyclable Cu-MOF-74; ligand-free; O-arylation reaction; 4-nitrobenzaldehyde; phenol; 4-formyldiphenyl ether
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leo, P.; Orcajo, G.; Briones, D.; Calleja, G.; Sánchez-Sánchez, M.; Martínez, F. A Recyclable Cu-MOF-74 Catalyst for the Ligand-Free O-Arylation Reaction of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde and Phenol. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 149.

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